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      Impact of Kangaroo Mother Care Intervention on Immunological and Pulmonary Functions of Preterm Infants during Breastfeeding


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          Preterm infants (PTIs) are prone to respiratory failure or other diseases due to immature organ development and poor immunological function. Herein, the effects of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) on the immunological and pulmonary functions of PTIs during breastfeeding were investigated in this study.


          The study recruited 86 delivery women and their PTIs with preterm pregnancy outcomes, consisting of 46 cases receiving breastfeeding plus KMC intervention (KMC group) and 40 cases receiving breastfeeding plus routine care (control group). The time of first lactation, time of first breastfeeding, and duration of first breastfeeding were observed in both cohorts. The breastfeeding status was assessed using the LATCH system. Maternal psychological status was evaluated by the breastfeeding self-efficacy scale (BSES) and self-rating anxiety/depression scale (SAS/SDS). The growth and development of PTIs were recorded, and the levels of postalbumin (PA), transferrin (TRF), plasma albumin (ALB), immunoglobulin (Ig) A, Ig G, Ig M, and complement C3 and C4 were measured. The tidal volume (VT), tidal volume per kilogram (VT/kg), minute volume (MV), and minute volume per kilogram (MV/kg) were detected using a pulmonary function tester.


          The KMC group presented shorter time of first lactation and first breastfeeding than the control group, with longer duration of first breastfeeding ( P < 0.05). After intervention, the BSES scores of delivery women were increased, while the SAS and SDS scores were decreased, with more notable improvements in the KMC group ( P < 0.05). The levels of PA, TRF, ALB, Ig A, Ig G, VT, and MV were elevated in PTIs in both groups, with more evident increase in the KMC group than in the control group ( P < 0.05). A better growth of PTIs was found in the KMC group than the control group ( P < 0.05).


          The study demonstrated that KMC intervention during breastfeeding could benefit PTIs specifically regarding their immunological and pulmonary functions.

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          Most cited references29

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          Preterm labor: one syndrome, many causes.

          Preterm birth is associated with 5 to 18% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Spontaneous preterm labor, a syndrome caused by multiple pathologic processes, leads to 70% of preterm births. The prevention and the treatment of preterm labor have been long-standing challenges. We summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms of disease implicated in this condition and review advances relevant to intra-amniotic infection, decidual senescence, and breakdown of maternal-fetal tolerance. The success of progestogen treatment to prevent preterm birth in a subset of patients at risk is a cause for optimism. Solving the mystery of preterm labor, which compromises the health of future generations, is a formidable scientific challenge worthy of investment. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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            Kangaroo mother care to reduce morbidity and mortality in low birthweight infants.

            Kangaroo mother care (KMC), originally defined as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent and exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from hospital, has been proposed as an alternative to conventional neonatal care for low birthweight (LBW) infants.
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              Kangaroo Mother Care and Neonatal Outcomes: A Meta-analysis

              CONTEXT: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an intervention aimed at improving outcomes among preterm and low birth weight newborns. OBJECTIVE: Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis estimating the association between KMC and neonatal outcomes. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information System (LILACS), Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Index Medicus for the South-East Asian Region (IMSEAR), and Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM). STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized trials and observational studies through April 2014 examining the relationship between KMC and neonatal outcomes among infants of any birth weight or gestational age. Studies with <10 participants, lack of a comparison group without KMC, and those not reporting a quantitative association were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers extracted data on study design, risk of bias, KMC intervention, neonatal outcomes, relative risk (RR) or mean difference measures. RESULTS: 1035 studies were screened; 124 met inclusion criteria. Among LBW newborns, KMC compared to conventional care was associated with 36% lower mortality(RR 0.64; 95% [CI] 0.46, 0.89). KMC decreased risk of neonatal sepsis (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34, 0.83), hypothermia (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.12, 0.41), hypoglycemia (RR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05, 0.32), and hospital readmission (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23, 0.76) and increased exclusive breastfeeding (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.26, 1.78). Newborns receiving KMC had lower mean respiratory rate and pain measures, and higher oxygen saturation, temperature, and head circumference growth. LIMITATIONS: Lack of data on KMC limited the ability to assess dose-response. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to scale up KMC implementation are warranted.

                Author and article information

                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                19 May 2022
                19 May 2022
                : 2022
                : 3180871
                1Department of Children Health Care & Breast-feeding, The Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang City, Shijiazhuang, China
                2Department of Pathogenic Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
                3Obstetrics Department, Wei County Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kaifeng, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Fenglin Liu

                Author information
                Copyright © 2022 Juan Yang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 6 April 2022
                : 7 May 2022
                : 11 May 2022
                Funded by: Key Science and Technology Research Plan of Department of Public Health in Hebei Province
                Award ID: 20120230
                Research Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                Complementary & Alternative medicine


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