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      Transendothelial Transport: The Vesicle Controversy

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          Abstract

          The relative contribution of transcytosis vs. large pore transport to the passage of macromolecules across microvascular endothelia has been a controversial issue for nearly half a century. To separate transcytosis from ‘porous’ transport, the transcytosis inhibitors N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and filipin have been tested in in situ or ex vivo perfused organs with highly conflicting results. In continually weighed isolated perfused organs, where measurements of pre- and post-capillary resistances, capillary pressure and capillary filtration coefficients can be repeatedly performed, high doses of NEM and filipin increased the bulk transport of macromolecules from blood to tissue, despite producing vasoconstriction. By contrast, in in situ perfused organs, marked reductions in the tissue uptake of albumin tracer have been observed after NEM and filipin. When tissue cooling has been employed as a means of inhibiting (active) transcytosis, results have invariably shown a low cooling sensitivity of albumin transport, compatible with passive transendothelial passage of albumin. This observation is further strengthened by the commonly observed dependence of albumin transport upon the capillary pressure and the rate of transcapillary convection. For low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a cooling-sensitive, non-selective transport component has been discovered, which may be represented by filtration through paracellular gaps, lateral diffusion through transendothelial channels formed by fused vesicles, or by transcytosis. From a physiological standpoint there is little evidence supporting active transendothelial transport of most plasma macromolecules. This seems to be supported by studies on caveolin-1-deficient mice lacking plasmalemmal vesicles (caveolae), in which there are no obvious abnormalities in the transendothelial transport of albumin, immunoglobulins or lipoproteins. Nevertheless, specific transport in peripheral capillaries of several hormones and other specific substances, similar to that existing across the blood-brain barrier, still remains as a possibility.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          JVR
          J Vasc Res
          10.1159/issn.1018-1172
          Journal of Vascular Research
          S. Karger AG
          1018-1172
          1423-0135
          2002
          October 2002
          18 September 2002
          : 39
          : 5
          : 375-390
          Affiliations
          Department of Nephrology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
          Article
          64521 J Vasc Res 2002;39:375–390
          10.1159/000064521
          12297701
          © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 7, References: 108, Pages: 16
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