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      Functional Characterization of a Novel Missense CLCN5 Mutation Causing Alterations in Proximal Tubular Endocytic Machinery in Dent’s Disease

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          Background/Aims: Mutations of the endosomal chloride/proton exchanger gene, CLCN5, cause Dent’s disease, an X-linked recessive proximal tubular disorder. The renal endocytic system was found to be affected in clcn5 knockout mice. However, the impaired endocytic machinery of Dent’s disease patients has not been thoroughly investigated. Methods: The CLCN5 gene was sequenced in a Japanese patient with Dent’s disease and his family. The loss-of-function phenotype of the missense CLCN5 mutation was investigated by gene expression in Xenopus oocytes and CHO cells. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on kidney biopsy specimens for endocytic machinery proteins, megalin, cubilin, and disabled-2 (Dab2) in proximal tubules. Results: Genomic analysis revealed a novel G-to-A transition at the first nucleotide of the 333rd codon of CLCN5, causing a substitution of glycine with arginine. Inefficient expression of the mutant gene in Xenopus oocytes resulted in abolished chloride currents. Impaired N-glycosylation of the mutant protein was evident in the DNA-transfected CHO cells. Proximal tubular expression of megalin, cubilin, and Dab2 was markedly reduced and irregular staining in some portions was observed in the patient compared with controls. Conclusions: A novel G333R CLCN5 mutation caused defective expression of megalin, cubilin, and Dab2 in a patient with Dent’s disease.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Bcl11b is required for differentiation and survival of alphabeta T lymphocytes.

          The gene Bcl11b, which encodes zinc finger proteins, and its paralog, Bcl11a, are associated with immune-system malignancies. We have generated Bcl11b-deficient mice that show a block at the CD4-CD8- double-negative stage of thymocyte development without any impairment in cells of B- or gammadelta T cell lineages. The Bcl11b-/- thymocytes showed unsuccessful recombination of V(beta) to D(beta) and lacked the pre-T cell receptor (TCR) complex on the cell surface, owing to the absence of Tcrb mRNA expression. In addition, we saw profound apoptosis in the thymus of neonatal Bcl11b-/- mice. These results suggest that Bcl11b is a key regulator of both differentiation and survival during thymocyte development.
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            Complete cloning and sequencing of rat gp330/"megalin," a distinctive member of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family.

            We completed the cDNA cloning and sequencing of gp330, the major kidney glomerular antigen for rat Heymann nephritis. The deduced 4660-aa sequence, expected to constitute a mature protein of M(r) 516,715, consists of a probable N-terminal signal peptide sequence (25 aa), an extracellular region (4400 aa), a single transmembrane domain (22 aa), and a C-terminal cytoplasmic tail (213 aa). The extracellular region contains three types of cysteine-rich repeats characteristic of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene family--36 LDLR ligand-binding repeats forming four clusters of putative ligand-binding domains, 16 growth factor repeats separated by 8 YWTD spacer regions, and 1 C-terminal epidermal growth factor repeat. The cytoplasmic tail contains two copies of the (FX)NPXY motif, which represents a signal for coated pitmediated internalization and an additional similar motif. The overall structure of gp330 is similar to that of the LDLR-related protein (LRP)/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor and shows even greater similarity to the Caenorhabditis elegans protein, reported as a homologue of LRP. However, gp330 differs from these proteins in (i) the cysteine-rich repeat arrangements found in the extreme extracellular N- and C-terminal regions, (ii) the distribution pattern of cysteine residues in the YWTD spacer regions, (iii) the location of the RX(K/R)R consensus recognition sequence of furin, a precursor processing endoprotease, and (iv) the length and structure of the cytoplasmic tail. We suggest the name megalin (from Greek mega) for gp330, the largest plasma membrane protein identified so far in vertebrates. The cloned cDNA will be useful for studies on the physiological functions of gp330/megalin and for determining its role in Heymann nephritis.
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              The functional cobalamin (vitamin B12)-intrinsic factor receptor is a novel complex of cubilin and amnionless.

              Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (I-GS, megaloblastic anemia 1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intestinal cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) malabsorption and proteinuria. I-GS-causing mutations are found in either of 2 genes encoding the epithelial proteins: cubilin and amnionless (AMN). Cubilin recognizes intrinsic factor (IF)-cobalamin and various other proteins to be endocytosed in the intestine and kidney, respectively, whereas the function of AMN is unknown. Here we show that cubilin and AMN colocalize in the endocytic apparatus of polarized epithelial cells and copurify as a tight complex during IF-cobalamin affinity and nondenaturing gel filtration chromatography. In transfected cells expressing either AMN or a truncated IF-cobalamin-binding cubilin construct, neither protein alone conferred ligand endocytosis. In cubilin transfectants, cubilin accumulated in early biosynthetic compartments. However, in cells cotransfected with AMN and the cubilin construct, cubilin trafficked to the cell surface and endosomes, and the cells exhibited IF-cobalamin endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of IF. These data indicate that cubilin and AMN are subunits of a novel cubilin/AMN (cubam) complex, where AMN binds to the amino-terminal third of cubilin and directs subcellular localization and endocytosis of cubilin with its ligand. Therefore, mutations affecting either of the 2 proteins may abrogate function of the cubam complex and cause IG-S.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                January 2008
                20 November 2007
                : 107
                : 4
                : p87-p97
                aDivision of Clinical Nephrology and Rheumatology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, bDepartment of Applied Molecular Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, cCenter for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, and dDepartment of Cellular Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan
                111253 Nephron Physiol 2007;107:p87–p97
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 28, Pages: 1
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Cubilin, Dab2, Proximal tubule cells, Megalin, Endocytosis, Dent’s disease


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