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      Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cohort Study

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious global public health challenge, but there is limited information on the connection between air pollution and risk of CKD.

          Objective:

          The aim of this study was to investigate the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μ m ( PM 2.5 ) and the development of CKD in a large cohort.

          Methods:

          A total of 100,629 nonCKD Taiwanese residents age 20 y or above were included in this study between 2001 and 2014. Ambient PM 2.5 concentration was estimated at each participant’s address using a satellite-based spatiotemporal model. Incident CKD cases were identified by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 mL / min / 1.73 m 2 . We collected information on a wide range of potential confounders/modifiers during the medical examinations. Cox proportional hazard regression was applied to calculate hazard ratios (HRs).

          Results:

          During the follow-up, 4,046 incident CKD cases were identified, and the incidence rate was 6.24 per 1,000 person-years. In contrast with participants with the first quintile exposure of PM 2.5 , participants with the fourth and fifth quintiles exposure of PM 2.5 had increased risk of CKD development, adjusting for age, sex, educational level, smoking, drinking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and self-reported heart disease or stroke, with an HR [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 1.11 (1.02, 1.22) and 1.15 (1.05, 1.26), respectively. A significant concentration–response trend was observed ( p < 0.001 ). Every 10 μ g / m 3 increment in the PM 2.5 concentration was associated with a 6% higher risk of developing CKD (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.10). Sensitivity and stratified analyses yielded similar results.

          Conclusions:

          Long-term exposure to ambient PM 2.5 was associated with an increased risk of CKD development. Our findings reinforce the urgency to develop global strategies of air pollution reduction to prevent CKD. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3304

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          Most cited references 14

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          Recommendations for improving serum creatinine measurement: a report from the Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education Program.

           G. Myers (2006)
          Reliable serum creatinine measurements in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation are critical to ongoing global public health efforts to increase the diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We present an overview of the commonly used methods for the determination of serum creatinine, method limitations, and method performance in conjunction with the development of analytical performance criteria. Available resources for standardization of serum creatinine measurement are discussed, and recommendations for measurement improvement are given. The National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) Laboratory Working Group reviewed problems related to serum creatinine measurement for estimating GFR and prepared recommendations to standardize and improve creatinine measurement. The NKDEP Laboratory Working Group, in collaboration with international professional organizations, has developed a plan that enables standardization and improved accuracy (trueness) of serum creatinine measurements in clinical laboratories worldwide that includes the use of the estimating equation for GFR based on serum creatinine concentration that was developed from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study. The current variability in serum creatinine measurements renders all estimating equations for GFR, including the MDRD Study equation, less accurate in the normal and slightly increased range of serum creatinine concentrations [<133 micromol/L (1.5 mg/dL)], which is the relevant range for detecting CKD [<60 mL.min(-1).(1.73 m2)(-1)]. Many automated routine methods for serum creatinine measurement meet or exceed the required precision; therefore, reduction of analytical bias in creatinine assays is needed. Standardization of calibration does not correct for analytical interferences (nonspecificity bias). The bias and nonspecificity problems associated with some of the routine methods must be addressed.
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            Evaluation of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation for estimating the glomerular filtration rate in multiple ethnicities.

            An equation from the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) provides more accurate estimates of the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) than that from the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) Study, although both include a two-level variable for race (Black and White and other). Since creatinine generation differs among ethnic groups, it is possible that a multilevel ethnic variable would allow more accurate estimates across all groups. To evaluate this, we developed an equation to calculate eGFR that includes a four-level race variable (Black, Asian, Native American and Hispanic, and White and other) using a database of 8254 patients pooled from 10 studies. This equation was then validated in 4014 patients using 17 additional studies from the United States and Europe (validation database), and in 1022 patients from China (675), Japan (248), and South Africa (99). Coefficients for the Black, Asian, and Native American and Hispanic groups resulted in 15, 5, and 1% higher levels of eGFR, respectively, compared with the White and other group. In the validation database, the two-level race equation had minimal bias in Black, Native American and Hispanic, and White and other cohorts. The four-level ethnicity equation significantly improved bias in Asians of the validation data set and in Chinese. Both equations had a large bias in Japanese and South African patients. Thus, heterogeneity in performance among the ethnic and geographic groups precludes use of the four-level race equation. The CKD-EPI two-level race equation can be used in the United States and Europe across a wide range of ethnicity.
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              Particulate Matter Air Pollution and the Risk of Incident CKD and Progression to ESRD

              Elevated levels of fine particulate matter <2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes and death, but their association with risk of CKD and ESRD is unknown. We linked the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Veterans Affairs databases to build an observational cohort of 2,482,737 United States veterans, and used survival models to evaluate the association of PM2.5 concentrations and risk of incident eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, incident CKD, eGFR decline ≥30%, and ESRD over a median follow-up of 8.52 years. County-level exposure was defined at baseline as the annual average PM2.5 concentrations in 2004, and separately as time-varying where it was updated annually and as cohort participants moved. In analyses of baseline exposure (median, 11.8 [interquartile range, 10.1-13.7] µg/m3), a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration was associated with increased risk of eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.14 to 1.29), CKD (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.38), eGFR decline ≥30% (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.39), and ESRD (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.35). In time-varying analyses, a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration was associated with similarly increased risk of eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, CKD, eGFR decline ≥30%, and ESRD. Spline analyses showed a linear relationship between PM2.5 concentrations and risk of kidney outcomes. Exposure estimates derived from National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data yielded consistent results. Our findings demonstrate a significant association between exposure to PM2.5 and risk of incident CKD, eGFR decline, and ESRD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Environ Health Perspect
                Environ. Health Perspect
                EHP
                Environmental Health Perspectives
                Environmental Health Perspectives
                0091-6765
                1552-9924
                15 October 2018
                October 2018
                : 126
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica , Taipei, Taiwan
                [2 ]Institute of Public Health, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University , Taipei, Taiwan
                [3 ]Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, Chinese University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, China
                [4 ]Department of Real Estate and Built Environment, National Taipei University, New Taipei City, Taiwan
                [5 ]Institute for the Environment, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology , Hong Kong, China
                [6 ]Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology , Hong Kong, China
                [7 ]MJ Health Research Foundation, MJ Group , Taipei, Taiwan
                [8 ]Division of Environment, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology , Hong Kong, China
                [9 ]Department of Sociology, Chinese University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, China
                [10 ]Institute of Sociology, Academia Sinica , Taipei, Taiwan
                [11 ]Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University , Utrecht, Netherlands
                [12 ]Shenzhen Research Institute, Chinese University of Hong Kong , Shenzhen, China
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to Xiang Qian Lao, JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4/F School of Public Health, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong SAR, China. Telephone: +852 2252 8763. Email: xqlao@ 123456cuhk.edu.hk
                Article
                EHP3304
                10.1289/EHP3304
                6371647
                30392394

                EHP is an open-access journal published with support from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health. All content is public domain unless otherwise noted.

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