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      Phylogenetic relationships and status of taxa of Pulsatilla uralensis and P. patens s.str. (Ranunculaceae) in north-eastern European Russia

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          Abstract

          We studied the allopatric complex Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill. s.lat. ( Ranunculaceae ) in north-eastern European Russia and the Urals. In this region, there are two kinds of P. patens with different perianth colours in monochrome and polychrome populations. To clarify their taxonomic boundaries, we used the sequences of chloroplast DNA ( rbcL and matK) and nuclear DNA (ITS2), in addition to morphological characteristics. The combination of three markers ( rbcL+ matK+ITS2) was found to be the most effective for phylogenetic resolution. The samples of two morphologically-different taxa P. uralensis and P. patents s.str. were shown to form a single clade on the phylogenetic tree. Based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis, we were not able to unequivocally prove the independent existence of P. uralensis .

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          MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models.

            MrBayes 3 performs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis combining information from different data partitions or subsets evolving under different stochastic evolutionary models. This allows the user to analyze heterogeneous data sets consisting of different data types-e.g. morphological, nucleotide, and protein-and to explore a wide variety of structured models mixing partition-unique and shared parameters. The program employs MPI to parallelize Metropolis coupling on Macintosh or UNIX clusters.
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              CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PhytoKeys
                PhytoKeys
                3
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F7FCE910-8E78-573F-9C77-7788555F8AAD
                PhytoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2011
                1314-2003
                2020
                09 October 2020
                : 162
                : 113-130
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Kommunisticheskaya 28, Syktyvkar, 167982, Russia Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Syktyvkar Russia
                [2 ] Botanical Garden of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta 202a, Yekaterinburg, 620144, Russia Botanical Garden, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Yekaterinburg Russia
                [3 ] K.A. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Botanicheskaya 35, Moscow, 127276, Russia K.A. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow Russia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Olga Valuyskikh ( valuyskikh@ 123456ib.komisc.ru )

                Academic editor: Editor

                Article
                53361
                10.3897/phytokeys.162.53361
                7578421
                Olga E. Valuyskikh, Ludmila V. Teteryuk, Yana I. Pylina, Oleg E. Sushentsov, Nikita A. Martynenko, Dmitry M. Shadrin

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Ranunculaceae
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Phylogeny
                Taxonomy
                Asia
                Europe

                Plant science & Botany

                matk, dna barcode, rbcl, its2, ranunculales , taxonomy, molecular phylogeny

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