Two aspects of hypernatremia are emphasized in this discussion: pathogenesis and treatment. Hypernatremia rarely develops with increased water loss alone; there must be a mechanism that interferes with water intake. In treating hypernatremia, the speed of correction is important because the volume regulation mechanisms restore the brain volume to normal when hypernatremia is chronic. Thus, too rapid correction of chronic hypernatremia results in brain edema. The calculation of fluid volume needed to correct hypernatremia can be obtained with use of various formulae described here for the fluid that contains dextrose in water or for hypotonic saline solution. Accurate prediction of the fluid volume requirement demands the knowledge of urine output and its electrolyte content, but when the information is not available, urine may be assumed to be isotonic in its electrolyte content.