Lepraria cryptovouauxii is described as a new semicryptic species similar to L. vouauxii , from which it differs geographically (South America) and phylogenetically; both species differ in nucleotide position characters in nucITS barcoding marker. Lepraria harrisiana is reported as new to South America and L. nothofagi as new to Antarctica, Bolivia, and Peru. Lepraria incana (South American records are referred to L. aff. hodkinsoniana ) and L. vouauxii (most South American records are referred to L. cryptovouauxii ) should be excluded at least temporarily from the lichen list of South America. All records previously referred to as L. alpina from Bolivia and Peru belong to L. nothofagi . Most of Bolivian records of L. pallida belong to L. harrisiana . Lepraria borealis and L. caesioalba should be included in L. neglecta . Lepraria achariana , L. impossibilis , and L. sipmaniana are sequenced for the first time.