Metabolomics, the analysis of the metabolite profile in body fluids or tissues, is being applied to the analysis of a number of different diseases as well as being used in following responses to therapy. While genomics involves the study of gene expression and proteomics the expression of proteins, metabolomics investigates the consequences of the activity of these genes and proteins. There is good reason to think that metabolomics will find particular utility in the investigation of inflammation, given the multi-layered responses to infection and damage that are seen. This may be particularly relevant to eye disease, which may have tissue specific and systemic components. Metabolomic analysis can inform us about ocular or other body fluids and can therefore provide new information on pathways and processes involved in these responses. In this review, we explore the metabolic consequences of disease, in particular ocular conditions, and why the data may be usefully and uniquely assessed using the multiplexed analysis inherent in the metabolomic approach.