Objectives: To determine whether intestinal mast cells and capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves are involved in the development and sequels of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-induced intestinal inflammation in rats. Methods: Two series of experiments were performed. In the first series, six groups of 8 rats were used to study the effects of mast cell stabilization by ketotifen. In the second series, six groups of 6 rats were used to study the effects of gut extrinsic sensory neuron depletion by capsaicin. For each series, four groups of rats were infected with N. brasiliensis and two groups were not infected. Results: Infection with N. brasiliensis resulted in an increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and mast cell numbers at day 12 postinfection; MPO returned to preinfection levels by day 35 while mast cell numbers remained elevated at that time. In ketotifen-treated infected rats, the increase of MPO at day 12 was less pronounced, but MPO activity remained elevated and mast cell numbers were increased at day 35. In capsaicin-treated infected rats, the MPO increase at day 12 was augmented, and MPO was still not returned to preinfection values by day 35; in contrast, the increase of mast cell numbers at days 12 and 35 was not modified by afferent nerve depletion. Conclusion: Mast cell stabilization decreased jejunal inflammation during the acute stage (day 12), but prolonged the inflammatory process until at least day 35 postinfection. The data also confirmed the protective role of gut extrinsic sensory neurons against intestinal inflammation in a model of nematode infection and revealed that these afferent nerves do not seem crucial for the development of nematode-induced hypermastocytosis.