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      Development and Validation of an Environmental Health Literacy Assessment Screening Tool for Domestic Well Owners: The Water Environmental Literacy Level Scale (WELLS)

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          Abstract

          In the U.S., privately owned wells are not subject to any regulatory testing requirements. Well owners must have sufficient environmental health literacy (EHL) to understand and interpret information that contain complex terms and labels to manage their water quality. The objective of this paper is to assess the performance and validity of a new EHL screening tool. The Water Environmental Literacy Level Scale (WELLS) is based on the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) and contains six questions on comprehension, calculations and application of information. Content validity was assessed from expert review. Criterion-related and construct validity were evaluated using an online, convenience sample of adults ( n = 869). Percent of correct responses for items ranged from 53% to 96% for NVS and from 41% to 97% for WELLS. Completion time, mean scores, distributions, and internal consistency were equivalent between both scales. Higher scores suggest higher EHL. The scales were moderately correlated (ρ = 0.47, p < 0.001). Kappa agreement was 74%. Bland-Altman plots depicted little mean difference between the scales. Education and income level were positively associated with EHL. WELLS showed criterion-validity with NVS and construct validity with education and income. In practice or research, WELLS could quickly screen individuals for low EHL.

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          The Causal Pathways Linking Health Literacy to Health Outcomes

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            "Who are these people?" Evaluating the demographic characteristics and political preferences of MTurk survey respondents

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                11 March 2019
                March 2019
                : 16
                : 5
                : 881
                Affiliations
                College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330, USA; Diana.Rohlman@ 123456oregonstate.edu (D.R.); Amelia.Vaughan@ 123456oregonstate.edu (A.V.); Rebecca.Amantia@ 123456oregonstate.edu (R.A.); Berlinc@ 123456oregonstate.edu (C.B.); Molly.Kile@ 123456oregonstate.edu (M.L.K.)
                Author notes
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3982-0327
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0646-5119
                Article
                ijerph-16-00881
                10.3390/ijerph16050881
                6427415
                30862003
                dfb99da7-08c4-4016-b2cb-875a5d2c2c6f
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 05 January 2019
                : 26 February 2019
                Categories
                Article

                Public health
                water,domestic well,health literacy,environment,scale development,scale diagnostics
                Public health
                water, domestic well, health literacy, environment, scale development, scale diagnostics

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