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      The relationship between anxiety disorders and suicide attempts: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

      , , ,
      Depression and Anxiety
      Wiley

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          Abstract

          Previous work has suggested that anxiety disorders are associated with suicide attempts. However, many studies have been limited by lack of accounting for factors that could influence this relationship, notably personality disorders. This study aims to examine the relationship between anxiety disorders and suicide attempts, accounting for important comorbidities, in a large nationally representative sample. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 34,653 adults between 2004 and 2005 in the United States. The relationship between suicide attempts and anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) was explored using multivariate regression models controlling for sociodemographics, Axis I and Axis II disorders. Among individuals reporting a lifetime history of suicide attempt, over 70% had an anxiety disorder. Even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, Axis I and Axis II disorders, the presence of an anxiety disorder was significantly associated with having made a suicide attempt (AOR=1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-2.08). Panic disorder (AOR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.06-1.61) and PTSD (AOR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.45-2.26) were independently associated with suicide attempts in multivariate models. Comorbidity of personality disorders with panic disorder (AOR=5.76, 95% CI: 4.58-7.25) and with PTSD (AOR=6.90, 95% CI: 5.41-8.79) demonstrated much stronger associations with suicide attempts over either disorder alone. Anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder and PTSD, are independently associated with suicide attempts. Clinicians need to assess suicidal behavior among patients presenting with anxiety problems. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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          Most cited references31

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          Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)

          (2000)
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            Suicide prevention strategies: a systematic review.

            In 2002, an estimated 877,000 lives were lost worldwide through suicide. Some developed nations have implemented national suicide prevention plans. Although these plans generally propose multiple interventions, their effectiveness is rarely evaluated. To examine evidence for the effectiveness of specific suicide-preventive interventions and to make recommendations for future prevention programs and research. Relevant publications were identified via electronic searches of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and PsychINFO databases using multiple search terms related to suicide prevention. Studies, published between 1966 and June 2005, included those that evaluated preventative interventions in major domains; education and awareness for the general public and for professionals; screening tools for at-risk individuals; treatment of psychiatric disorders; restricting access to lethal means; and responsible media reporting of suicide. Data were extracted on primary outcomes of interest: suicidal behavior (completion, attempt, ideation), intermediary or secondary outcomes (treatment seeking, identification of at-risk individuals, antidepressant prescription/use rates, referrals), or both. Experts from 15 countries reviewed all studies. Included articles were those that reported on completed and attempted suicide and suicidal ideation; or, where applicable, intermediate outcomes, including help-seeking behavior, identification of at-risk individuals, entry into treatment, and antidepressant prescription rates. We included 3 major types of studies for which the research question was clearly defined: systematic reviews and meta-analyses (n = 10); quantitative studies, either randomized controlled trials (n = 18) or cohort studies (n = 24); and ecological, or population- based studies (n = 41). Heterogeneity of study populations and methodology did not permit formal meta-analysis; thus, a narrative synthesis is presented. Education of physicians and restricting access to lethal means were found to prevent suicide. Other methods including public education, screening programs, and media education need more testing. Physician education in depression recognition and treatment and restricting access to lethal methods reduce suicide rates. Other interventions need more evidence of efficacy. Ascertaining which components of suicide prevention programs are effective in reducing rates of suicide and suicide attempt is essential in order to optimize use of limited resources.
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              The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): reliability of alcohol consumption, tobacco use, family history of depression and psychiatric diagnostic modules in a general population sample.

              the purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of newly introduced or revised modules of the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV), including alcohol consumption, tobacco use, family history of depression, and selected DSM-IV axis I and II psychiatric disorders. kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the AUDADIS-IV modules using a test-retest design among a total of 2657 respondents, in subsets of approximately 400, randomly drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). reliabilities for alcohol consumption, tobacco use and family history of major depression measures were good to excellent, while reliabilities for selected DSM-IV axis I and II disorders were fair to good. The reliabilities of dimensional symptom scales of DSM-IV axis I and axis II disorders exceeded those of their dichotomous diagnostic counterparts and were generally in the good to excellent range. the high reliability of alcohol consumption, tobacco use, family history of depression and psychiatric disorder modules found in this study suggests that the AUDADIS-IV can be a useful tool in various research settings, particularly in studies of the general population, the target population for which it was designed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Depression and Anxiety
                Depress. Anxiety
                Wiley
                10914269
                September 2010
                September 2010
                August 30 2010
                : 27
                : 9
                : 791-798
                Article
                10.1002/da.20674
                2940247
                20217852
                dfbaf494-f62f-4c5e-be14-31083aec7bd9
                © 2010

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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