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      Downwards trends in adolescent risk-taking behaviours in New Zealand: Exploring driving forces for change : Adolescent risk-taking trends

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          A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Adolescent Risk-Taking.

          This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between childhood and adolescence as a result of changes around the time of puberty in the brain's socio-emotional system leading to increased reward-seeking, especially in the presence of peers, fueled mainly by a dramatic remodeling of the brain's dopaminergic system. Risk-taking declines between adolescence and adulthood because of changes in the brain's cognitive control system - changes which improve individuals' capacity for self-regulation. These changes occur across adolescence and young adulthood and are seen in structural and functional changes within the prefrontal cortex and its connections to other brain regions. The differing timetables of these changes make mid-adolescence a time of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior.
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            Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries.

            The 2011 UN high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) called for multisectoral action including with the private sector and industry. However, through the sale and promotion of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink (unhealthy commodities), transnational corporations are major drivers of global epidemics of NCDs. What role then should these industries have in NCD prevention and control? We emphasise the rise in sales of these unhealthy commodities in low-income and middle-income countries, and consider the common strategies that the transnational corporations use to undermine NCD prevention and control. We assess the effectiveness of self-regulation, public-private partnerships, and public regulation models of interaction with these industries and conclude that unhealthy commodity industries should have no role in the formation of national or international NCD policy. Despite the common reliance on industry self-regulation and public-private partnerships, there is no evidence of their effectiveness or safety. Public regulation and market intervention are the only evidence-based mechanisms to prevent harm caused by the unhealthy commodity industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour.

              Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
                J Paediatr Child Health
                Wiley
                10344810
                June 2018
                June 2018
                May 20 2018
                : 54
                : 6
                : 602-608
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences; University of Auckland; Auckland New Zealand
                [2 ]School of Nursing, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences; University of Auckland; Auckland New Zealand
                [3 ]School of Population Health, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences; University of Auckland; Auckland New Zealand
                [4 ]Faculty of Education and Social Work; University of Auckland; Auckland New Zealand
                [5 ]Department of Paediatrics, Child and Youth Health, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences; University of Auckland; Auckland New Zealand
                [6 ]Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences; University of Auckland; Auckland New Zealand
                Article
                10.1111/jpc.13930
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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