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      Tall Stature, Insulin Resistance, and Disturbed Behavior in a Girl with the Triple X Syndrome Harboring Three SHOX Genes: Offspring of a Father with Mosaic Klinefelter Syndrome but with Two Maternal X Chromosomes

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          Abstract

          Aims: To describe the tall stature and its possible underlying mechanism in a Caucasian girl (age 12 years and 10 months) with 46,XX (28%)/47,XXX (72%) mosaicism and to identify the parental origin of her extra X chromosome. Methods: The fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio was studied. The karyotypes of the girl and her parents as well as the presence of SHOX copies and the parental origin of her extra X chromosome were assessed. Results: Clinical examination revealed a tall stature and severe acne, and endocrinological/metabolic assessment revealed insulin resistance. Fluorescence in situ hybridization cytogenetic analysis depicted the presence of three SHOX genes in the 47,XXX cell line of the patient. Karyotyping of her parents showed a normal 46,XX karyotype in the mother and 46,XY(93%)/47,XXY(7%) Klinefelter mosaicism in the father. However, DNA analysis unequivocally showed maternal origin of the extra X chromosome of the patient. Conclusions: This report suggests that SHOX gene triplication may produce a tall stature, even in the presence of preserved ovarian function. X triplication might predispose to insulin resistance and behavioral disorders.

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          Most cited references 8

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          EVIDENCE FOR THE EXISTENCE OF THE HUMAN "SUPER FEMALE"

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            Comparison of Simple Measures of Insulin Sensitivity in Young Girls with Premature Adrenarche: The Fasting Glucose to Insulin Ratio May Be a Simple and Useful Measure

             M. Silfen (2001)
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              Transition From Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Adaptation and Psychiatric Status of Women With 47,XXX

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2004
                April 2004
                23 April 2004
                : 61
                : 5
                : 205-210
                Affiliations
                aFirst Department of Pediatrics and bDepartment of Medical Genetics, Aghia Sophia Children’s Hospital, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; cPediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., USA
                Article
                76532 Horm Res 2004;61:205–210
                10.1159/000076532
                14752208
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 37, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Case Report

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