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      PAB-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans Poly(A)-Binding Protein, Regulates mRNA Metabolism in germline by Interacting with CGH-1 and CAR-1

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          Poly(A)-binding proteins are highly conserved among eukaryotes and regulate stability of mRNA and translation. Among C. elegans homologues, pab-1 mutants showed defects in germline mitotic proliferation. Unlike pab-1 mutants, pab-1 RNAi at every larval stage caused arrest of germline development at the following stage, indicating that pab-1 is required for the entire postembryonic germline development. This idea is supported by the observations that the mRNA level of pab-1 increased throughout postembryonic development and its protein expression was germline-enriched. PAB-1 localized to P granules and the cytoplasm in the germline. PAB-1 colocalized with CGH-1 and CAR-1 and affected their localization, suggesting that PAB-1 is a component of processing (P)-bodies that interacts with them. The mRNA and protein levels of representative germline genes, rec-8, GLP-1, rme-2, and msp-152, were decreased after pab-1 RNAi. Although the mRNA level of msp-152 was increased in cgh-1 mutant, it was also significantly reduced by pab-1 RNAi. Our results suggest that PAB-1 positively regulates the mRNA levels of germline genes, which is likely facilitated by the interaction of PAB-1 with other P-body components, CGH-1 and CAR-1.

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          Most cited references 40

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          P bodies and the control of mRNA translation and degradation.

          Recent results indicate that many untranslating mRNAs in somatic eukaryotic cells assemble into related mRNPs that accumulate in specific cytoplasmic foci referred to as P bodies. Transcripts associated with P body components can either be degraded or return to translation. Moreover, P bodies are also biochemically and functionally related to some maternal and neuronal mRNA granules. This suggests an emerging model of cytoplasmic mRNA function in which the rates of translation and degradation of mRNAs are influenced by a dynamic equilibrium between polysomes and the mRNPs seen in P bodies. Moreover, some mRNA-specific regulatory factors, including miRNAs and RISC, appear to repress translation and promote decay by recruiting P body components to individual mRNAs.
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            RNA granules

            Cytoplasmic RNA granules in germ cells (polar and germinal granules), somatic cells (stress granules and processing bodies), and neurons (neuronal granules) have emerged as important players in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. RNA granules contain various ribosomal subunits, translation factors, decay enzymes, helicases, scaffold proteins, and RNA-binding proteins, and they control the localization, stability, and translation of their RNA cargo. We review the relationship between different classes of these granules and discuss how spatial organization regulates messenger RNA translation/decay.
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              On the role of RNA amplification in dsRNA-triggered gene silencing.

              We have investigated the role of trigger RNA amplification during RNA interference (RNAi) in Caenorhabditis elegans. Analysis of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) produced during RNAi in C. elegans revealed a substantial fraction that cannot derive directly from input dsRNA. Instead, a population of siRNAs (termed secondary siRNAs) appeared to derive from the action of a cellular RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP) on mRNAs that are being targeted by the RNAi mechanism. The distribution of secondary siRNAs exhibited a distinct polarity (5'-->3' on the antisense strand), suggesting a cyclic amplification process in which RdRP is primed by existing siRNAs. This amplification mechanism substantially augments the potency of RNAi-based surveillance, while ensuring that the RNAi machinery will focus on expressed mRNAs.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                19 December 2013
                : 8
                : 12
                Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Institute of KU Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea
                CNRS UMR7622 & University Paris 6 Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, France
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: YS. Performed the experiments: SK. Analyzed the data: YS IK SK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YS. Wrote the manuscript: YS IK SK.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) to Y. H. Shim (2010-0011182 and NRF-2013R1A1A2009090) and I. Kawasaki (2010-0009509 and NRF-2013R1A1A2009820), and by the 2012 KU Brain Pool Program of Konkuk University, Korea to I. Kawasaki. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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