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      Aspergillus awamori ameliorates the physicochemical characteristics and mineral profile of mung bean under salt stress

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          Abstract

          Background

          In the list of abiotic stresses, salt stress is a main growth retarding factor which affects 7% of rain-fed while 30% worldwide irrigated agriculture. However, various strategies are assumed to manage this problem, but the use of endophytes is cheap and eco-friendly. The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavior of endophytic Aspergillus awamori (EWF) in creating salt tolerance in mung bean in terms of its seedling growth, biochemical indices, antioxidant enzymes, endogenous IAA, and ionic status of the plant.

          Results

          The results revealed that the 150 mM of NaCl reduced seedling growth (seedlings’ weight and length; leaves number), chlorophyll contents, and IAA. On the other hand, proline, polyphenols, flavonoids, tannin, lipid peroxidation, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were increased. Inoculation of EWF had promoted the mung bean growth under all tested conditions. EWF enhanced the biomass and IAA contents of the mung bean plants under salt stress. Moreover, EWF-associated mung bean seedlings exhibited low accumulation of stress markers, and Cl, Na, Na/K, and Ca/K ratio, whereas higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, N, and P in mung bean seedlings.

          Conclusion

          The results provided a sustainable approach in using endophytic EWF under salt stress, thus concluded that this fungus can be very handy in mung bean as well as other important crop production in saline areas.

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          Most cited references40

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          A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding

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            Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies

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              Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.

              Various abiotic stresses lead to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants which are highly reactive and toxic and cause damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA which ultimately results in oxidative stress. The ROS comprises both free radical (O(2)(-), superoxide radicals; OH, hydroxyl radical; HO(2), perhydroxy radical and RO, alkoxy radicals) and non-radical (molecular) forms (H(2)O(2), hydrogen peroxide and (1)O(2), singlet oxygen). In chloroplasts, photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII) are the major sites for the production of (1)O(2) and O(2)(-). In mitochondria, complex I, ubiquinone and complex III of electron transport chain (ETC) are the major sites for the generation of O(2)(-). The antioxidant defense machinery protects plants against oxidative stress damages. Plants possess very efficient enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione reductase, GR; monodehydroascorbate reductase, MDHAR; dehydroascorbate reductase, DHAR; glutathione peroxidase, GPX; guaicol peroxidase, GOPX and glutathione-S- transferase, GST) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, ASH; glutathione, GSH; phenolic compounds, alkaloids, non-protein amino acids and α-tocopherols) antioxidant defense systems which work in concert to control the cascades of uncontrolled oxidation and protect plant cells from oxidative damage by scavenging of ROS. ROS also influence the expression of a number of genes and therefore control the many processes like growth, cell cycle, programmed cell death (PCD), abiotic stress responses, pathogen defense, systemic signaling and development. In this review, we describe the biochemistry of ROS and their production sites, and ROS scavenging antioxidant defense machinery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture
                Chem. Biol. Technol. Agric.
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                2196-5641
                December 2021
                February 10 2021
                December 2021
                : 8
                : 1
                Article
                10.1186/s40538-021-00208-9
                dfcbded4-8463-4b1f-bbe6-a8b293c7a676
                © 2021

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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