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      Role of Antioxidants and Natural Products in Inflammation

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          Abstract

          Inflammation is a comprehensive array of physiological response to a foreign organism, including human pathogens, dust particles, and viruses. Inflammations are mainly divided into acute and chronic inflammation depending on various inflammatory processes and cellular mechanisms. Recent investigations have clarified that inflammation is a major factor for the progression of various chronic diseases/disorders, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, arthritis, obesity, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. Free radical productions from different biological and environmental sources are due to an imbalance of natural antioxidants which further leads to various inflammatory associated diseases. In this review article, we have outlined the inflammatory process and its cellular mechanisms involved in the progression of various chronic modern human diseases. In addition, we have discussed the role of free radicals-induced tissue damage, antioxidant defence, and molecular mechanisms in chronic inflammatory diseases/disorders. The systematic knowledge regarding the role of inflammation and its associated adverse effects can provide a clear understanding in the development of innovative therapeutic targets from natural sources that are intended for suppression of various chronic inflammations associated diseases.

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          Most cited references 84

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          Points of control in inflammation.

           Carl Nathan (2015)
          Inflammation is a complex set of interactions among soluble factors and cells that can arise in any tissue in response to traumatic, infectious, post-ischaemic, toxic or autoimmune injury. The process normally leads to recovery from infection and to healing, However, if targeted destruction and assisted repair are not properly phased, inflammation can lead to persistent tissue damage by leukocytes, lymphocytes or collagen. Inflammation may be considered in terms of its checkpoints, where binary or higher-order signals drive each commitment to escalate, go signals trigger stop signals, and molecules responsible for mediating the inflammatory response also suppress it, depending on timing and context. The non-inflammatory state does not arise passively from an absence of inflammatory stimuli; rather, maintenance of health requires the positive actions of specific gene products to suppress reactions to potentially inflammatory stimuli that do not warrant a full response.
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            Radical causes of cancer.

            Free radicals are ubiquitous in our body and are generated by normal physiological processes, including aerobic metabolism and inflammatory responses, to eliminate invading pathogenic microorganisms. Because free radicals can also inflict cellular damage, several defences have evolved both to protect our cells from radicals--such as antioxidant scavengers and enzymes--and to repair DNA damage. Understanding the association between chronic inflammation and cancer provides insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In particular, we highlight the interaction between nitric oxide and p53 as a crucial pathway in inflammatory-mediated carcinogenesis.
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              The role of complement in inflammatory diseases from behind the scenes into the spotlight.

              Our understanding of the biology of the complement system has undergone a drastic metamorphosis since its original discovery. This system, which was traditionally primarily described as a "complement" to humoral immunity, is now perceived as a central constituent of innate immunity, defending the host against pathogens, coordinating various events during inflammation, and bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Complement is an assembly of proteins found in the blood and body fluids and on cell surfaces. Soluble complement components form the proteolytic cascade, whose activation leads to the generation of complement effectors that target various cells involved in the immune response. Membrane-bound receptors and regulators transmit signals from complement effectors to target cells and limit complement activation to the surfaces of pathogens and damaged or activated host cells. The multiple interconnections among complement proteins, immune cells, and mediators provide an excellent mechanism to protect the organism against infections and support the repair of damaged tissues. However, disturbances in this "defense machinery" contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases. The role of complement in various inflammatory disorders is multifaceted; for example, the activation of complement can significantly contribute to inflammation-mediated tissue damage, whereas inherited or acquired complement deficiencies highly favor the development of autoimmunity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                OMCL
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1942-0900
                1942-0994
                2016
                10 October 2016
                : 2016
                Affiliations
                1Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                2Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                4Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                Author notes
                *Palanisamy Arulselvan: arulbio@ 123456gmail.com

                Academic Editor: Shreesh Ojha

                Article
                10.1155/2016/5276130
                5075620
                Copyright © 2016 Palanisamy Arulselvan et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Universiti Putra Malaysia
                Award ID: GP-I/2014/9443700
                Categories
                Review Article

                Molecular medicine

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