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      Prognostic Role of On-Line Vectorcardiography as Regards Repeat Revascularization after Successful Coronary Angioplasty

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          This study evaluated the prognostic significance of continuous on-line vectorcardiography (VCG) during elective coronary angioplasty (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, PTCA). Patients (n = 192, mean age 58 ± 10), treated with elective and initially successful PTCA, were included. VCG monitoring was started before start of the PTCA procedure and was carried out during the entire procedure. ST vector magnitude (ST-VM) was monitored. A 6-month follow-up was obtained. Main outcome measures were the frequency of cardiac events and revascularization during follow-up. During follow-up, 1 patient died, 6 suffered a nonfatal myocardial infarction and 50 were revascularized. Angiography revealed restenosis in 88% of the patients who had a revascularization. In the total patient group, the VCG predictor of revascularization was the total ischemic time of all ST-VM episodes (p = 0.05). Clinical predictors of revascularization were diabetes mellitus (p < 0.01), a more severe type of lesion (type B; p < 0.01), percent post-PTCA stenosis (p < 0.05), nominal balloon size (p < 0.01), maximum balloon pressure (p < 0.05) and no stent implanted (p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis all the above significant univariate variables of revascularization were entered. Total ischemic time of ST-VM (p < 0.01) was the best variable giving independent prognostic information. In the nonstent group, total ischemic time of ST-VM (p < 0.01) was the only independent predictor of a further revascularization. In conclusion, VCG monitoring during elective PTCA gives on-line information that identifies patients at an increased risk of a revascularization during 6 months after the initial procedure.

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          A comparison of balloon-expandable-stent implantation with balloon angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease. Benestent Study Group.

          Balloon-expandable coronary-artery stents were developed to prevent coronary restenosis after coronary angioplasty. These devices hold coronary vessels open at sites that have been dilated. However, it is unknown whether stenting improves long-term angiographic and clinical outcomes as compared with standard balloon angioplasty. A total of 520 patients with stable angina and a single coronary-artery lesion were randomly assigned to either stent implantation (262 patients) or standard balloon angioplasty (258 patients). The primary clinical end points were death, the occurrence of a cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, the need for coronary-artery bypass surgery, or a second percutaneous intervention involving the previously treated lesion, either at the time of the initial procedure or during the subsequent seven months. The primary angiographic end point was the minimal luminal diameter at follow-up, as determined by quantitative coronary angiography. After exclusions, 52 patients in the stent group (20 percent) and 76 patients in the angioplasty group (30 percent) reached a primary clinical end point (relative risk, 0.68; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.50 to 0.92; P = 0.02). The difference in clinical-event rates was explained mainly by a reduced need for a second coronary angioplasty in the stent group (relative risk, 0.58; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.85; P = 0.005). The mean (+/- SD) minimal luminal diameters immediately after the procedure were 2.48 +/- 0.39 mm in the stent group and 2.05 +/- 0.33 mm in the angioplasty group; at follow-up, the diameters were 1.82 +/- 0.64 mm in the stent group and 1.73 +/- 0.55 mm in the angioplasty group (P = 0.09), which correspond to rates of restenosis (diameter of stenosis, > or = 50 percent) of 22 and 32 percent, respectively (P = 0.02). Peripheral vascular complications necessitating surgery, blood transfusion, or both were more frequent after stenting than after balloon angioplasty (13.5 vs. 3.1 percent, P < 0.001). The mean hospital stay was significantly longer in the stent group than in the angioplasty group (8.5 vs. 3.1 days, P < 0.001). Over seven months of follow-up, the clinical and angiographic outcomes were better in patients who received a stent than in those who received standard coronary angioplasty. However, this benefit was achieved at the cost of a significantly higher risk of vascular complications at the access site and a longer hospital stay.
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            Myonecrosis after revascularization procedures.

            The detection of elevated cardiac enzyme levels and the occurrence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities after revascularization procedures have been the subject of recent controversy. This report represents an effort to achieve a consensus among a group of researchers with data on this subject. Creatine kinase (CK) or CK-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) elevations occur in 5% to 30% of patients after a percutaneous intervention and commonly during coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Although Q wave formation is rare, other ECG changes are common. The rate of detection is highly dependent on the intensity of enzyme and ECG measurement. Because most events occur without the development of a Q wave, the ECG will not definitively diagnose them; even the ECG criteria for Q wave formation signifying an important clinical event have been variable. At least 10 studies evaluating > 10,000 patients undergoing percutaneous intervention have demonstrated that elevation of CK or CK-MB is associated not only with a higher mortality, but also with a higher risk of subsequent cardiac events and higher cost. Efforts to identify a specific cutoff value below which the prognosis is not impaired have not been successful. Rather, the risk of adverse outcomes increases with any elevation of CK or CK-MB and increases further in proportion to the level of intervention. This information complements similar previous data on CABG. Obtaining preprocedural and postprocedural ECGs and measurement of serial cardiac enzymes after revascularization are recommended. Patients with enzyme levels elevated more than threefold above the upper limit of normal or with ECG changes diagnostic for Q wave myocardial infarction (MI) should be treated as patients with an MI. Patients with more modest elevations should be observed carefully. Clinical trials should ensure systematic evaluation for myocardial necrosis, with attention paid to multivariable analysis of risk factors for poor long-term outcome, to determine the extent to which enzyme elevation is an independent risk factor after considering clinical history, coronary anatomy, left ventricular function and clinical evidence of ischemia. In addition, tracking of enzyme levels in clinical trials is needed to determine whether interventions that reduce periprocedural enzyme elevation also improve mortality.
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              Two-dimensional echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction: Prospective analysis of what constitutes an adequate determination


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                June 2000
                04 July 2000
                : 93
                : 1-2
                : 78-86
                aDepartment of Cardiology and bDepartment of Radiology, Huddinge Hospital, Huddinge, and cDepartment of Medicine, Danderyd Hospital, Danderyd, Sweden
                7006 Cardiology 2000;93:78–86
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 5, References: 37, Pages: 9
                Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology


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