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      Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review

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          Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil.

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          The evolution of color vision in insects.

           L Chittka,  T Briscoe (2000)
          We review the physiological, molecular, and neural mechanisms of insect color vision. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses reveal that the basic bauplan, UV-blue-green-trichromacy, appears to date back to the Devonian ancestor of all pterygote insects. There are variations on this theme, however. These concern the number of color receptor types, their differential expression across the retina, and their fine tuning along the wavelength scale. In a few cases (but not in many others), these differences can be linked to visual ecology. Other insects have virtually identical sets of color receptors despite strong differences in lifestyle. Instead of the adaptionism that has dominated visual ecology in the past, we propose that chance evolutionary processes, history, and constraints should be considered. In addition to phylogenetic analyses designed to explore these factors, we suggest quantifying variance between individuals and populations and using fitness measurements to test the adaptive value of traits identified in insect color vision systems.
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            Odor-mediated behavior of Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes.

            The African mosquito species Anopheles gambiae sensu lato s.l. and Anopheles funestus rank among the world's most efficient vectors of human malaria. Their unique bionomics, particularly their anthropophilic, endophagic and endophilic characters, guarantee a strong mosquito-host interaction, favorable to malaria transmission. Olfactory cues govern the various behaviors of female mosquitoes and here we review the role of semiochemicals in the life history of African malaria vectors. Recent evidence points towards the existence of human-specific kairomones affecting host-seeking A. gambiae s.l., and efforts are under way to identify the volatiles mediating this behavior. Based on examples from other Culicidae spp., it is argued that there is good reason to assume that mating, sugar feeding, and oviposition behavior in Afrotropical malaria vectors may also be mediated by semiochemicals. It is foreseen that increased knowledge of odor-mediated behaviors will be applied in the development of novel sampling techniques and possibly alternative methods of intervention to control malaria.
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              The Ehrlich pathway for fusel alcohol production: a century of research on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism.


                Author and article information

                Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz
                Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
                Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
                Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
                August 2014
                August 2014
                : 109
                : 5
                : 685-705
                [1 ]Laboratório de Fisiologia e Controle de Artrópodes Vetores
                [2 ]Laboratório de Entomologia, Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
                [3 ]Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, AM, Brasil
                [4 ]Laboratório de Transmissores de Hematozoários, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
                [5 ]Odebrecht Angola - Projectos e Serviços Ltda, Luanda, Angola
                Author notes
                [+ ] Corresponding author: jbento@

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Figures: 5, Tables: 5, References: 245, Pages: 21

                traps, anopheles darling, malaria, collection, methods


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