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      Trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair using customized prolene mesh: A safe and cost-effective approach for high-grade pelvic organ prolapse

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          Abstract

          Aims:

          To assess safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair with customized prolene mesh in patients with high-grade pelvic organ prolapse.

          Materials and Methods:

          A total of 32 patients, who underwent trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair using a customized prolene mesh from January 2007 to June 2010 for grade III and IV pelvic organ prolapse, were analyzed retrospectively. Prolapse was graded using Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system of International Continence Society. Patients were evaluated for symptoms associated with prolapse pre- and postoperatively.

          Results:

          Of the 32 patients, 18 were grade IV uterine prolapse, 10 were grade III uterine prolapse, and 4 were grade IV vault prolapse. Twenty-eight patients underwent vaginal hysterectomy at the time of repair. All the patients had associated anterior and posterior prolapse of varying degree. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 42 months. All patients had symptomatic relief after surgery. There were no intraoperative rectal or bladder injuries. Early complications were perineal pain (30), de novo urgency (4), vaginal discharge (3), vaginal wall hematoma (2), and failure to void (2). Two patients had vaginal erosion of mesh.

          Conclusions:

          Trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair using a customized prolene mesh is safe and effective treatment for comprehensive repair of high-grade pelvic organ prolapse. The use of this custom-made prolene mesh makes the procedure very cost-effective and affordable. The reduction in cost is about 25-30 times with the use of this mesh when compared with commercially available variety.

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          Most cited references 31

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          The standardization of terminology of female pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor dysfunction.

          This article presents a standard system of terminology recently approved by the International Continence Society, the American Urogynecologic Society, and the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons for the description of female pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor dysfunction. An objective site-specific system for describing, quantitating, and staging pelvic support in women is included. It has been developed to enhance both clinical and academic communication regarding individual patients and populations of patients. Clinicians and researchers caring for women with pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor dysfunction are encouraged to learn and use the system.
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            Abdominal sacrocolpopexy: a comprehensive review.

            To summarize published data about abdominal sacrocolpopexy and to highlight areas about which data are lacking. We conducted a literature search on MEDLINE using Ovid and PubMed, from January,1966 to January, 2004, using search terms "sacropexy," "sacrocolpopexy," "sacral colpopexy," "colpopexy," "sacropexy," "colposacropexy," "abdominal sacrocolpopexy" "pelvic organ prolapse and surgery," and "vaginal vault prolapse or surgery" and included articles with English-language abstracts. We examined reference lists of published articles to identify other articles not found on the electronic search. We examined all studies identified in our search that provided any outcome data on sacrocolpopexy. Because of the substantial heterogeneity of outcome measures and follow-up intervals in case studies, we did not apply meta-analytic techniques to the data. Follow-up duration for most studies ranged from 6 months to 3 years. The success rate, when defined as lack of apical prolapse postoperatively, ranged from 78-100% and when defined as no postoperative prolapse, from 58-100%. The median reoperation rates for pelvic organ prolapse and for stress urinary incontinence in the studies that reported these outcomes were 4.4% (range 0-18.2%) and 4.9% (range 1.2% to 30.9%), respectively. The overall rate of mesh erosion was 3.4% (70 of 2,178). Some reports found more mesh erosions when concomitant total hysterectomy was done, whereas other reports did not. There were no data to either support or refute the contentions that concomitant culdoplasty or paravaginal repair decreased the risk of failure. Most authors recommended burying the graft under the peritoneum to attempt to decrease the risk of bowel obstruction; despite this, the median rate (when reported) of small bowel obstruction requiring surgery was 1.1% (range 0.6% to 8.6%). Few studies rigorously assessed pelvic symptoms, bowel function, or sexual function. Sacrocolpopexy is a reliable procedure that effectively and consistently resolves vaginal vault prolapse. Patients should be counseled about the low, but present risk, of reoperation for prolapse, stress incontinence, and complications. Prospective trials are needed to understand the effect of sacrocolpopexy on functional outcomes.
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              Women seeking treatment for advanced pelvic organ prolapse have decreased body image and quality of life.

              Women who seek treatment for pelvic organ prolapse strive for an improvement in quality of life. Body image has been shown to be an important component of differences in quality of life. To date, there are no data on body image in patients with advanced pelvic organ prolapse. Our objective was to compare body image and quality of life in women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse with normal controls. We used a case-control study design. Cases were defined as subjects who presented to a tertiary urogynecology clinic with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (stage 3 or 4). Controls were defined as subjects who presented to a tertiary care gynecology or women's health clinic for an annual visit with normal pelvic floor support (stage 0 or 1) and without urinary incontinence. All patients completed a valid and reliable body image scale and a generalized (Short Form Health Survey) and condition-specific (Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20) quality-of-life scale. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to adjust for possible confounding variables. Forty-seven case and 51 control subjects were enrolled. After controlling for age, race, parity, previous hysterectomy, and medical comorbidities, subjects with advanced pelvic organ prolapse were more likely to feel self-conscious (adjusted odds ratio 4.7; 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 18, P = .02), less likely to feel physically attractive (adjusted odds ratio 11; 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 51, P < .001), less likely to feel feminine (adjusted odds ratio 4.0; 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 15, P = .03), and less likely to feel sexually attractive (adjusted odds ratio 4.6; 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 17, P = .02) than normal controls. The groups were similar in their feeling of dissatisfaction with appearance when dressed, difficulty looking at themselves naked, avoiding people because of appearance, and overall dissatisfaction with their body. Subjects with advanced pelvic organ prolapse suffered significantly lower quality of life on the physical scale of the SF-12 (mean 42; 95% confidence interval 39 to 45 versus mean 50; 95% confidence interval 47 to 53, P < .009). However, no differences between groups were noted on the mental scale of the SF-12 (mean 51; 95% confidence interval 50 to 54 versus mean 50; 95% confidence interval 47 to 52, P = .56). Additionally, subjects with advanced pelvic organ prolapse scored significantly worse on the prolapse, urinary, and colorectal scales and overall summary score of Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 than normal controls (mean summary score 104; 95% confidence interval 90 to 118 versus mean 29; 95% confidence interval 16 to 43, P < .0001), indicating a decrease in condition-specific quality of life. Worsening body image correlated with lower quality of life on both the physical and mental scales of the SF-12 as well as the prolapse, urinary, and colorectal scales and overall summary score of Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 in subjects with advanced pelvic organ prolapse. Women seeking treatment for advanced pelvic organ prolapse have decreased body image and overall quality of life. Body image may be a key determinant for quality of life in patients with advanced prolapse and may be an important outcome measure for treatment evaluation in clinical trials.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Urol
                Indian J Urol
                IJU
                Indian Journal of Urology : IJU : Journal of the Urological Society of India
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0970-1591
                1998-3824
                Jan-Mar 2012
                : 28
                : 1
                : 21-27
                Affiliations
                Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
                Author notes
                For correspondence: Dr. (Prof.) R. Kapoor, Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow – 226 014, Uttar Pradesh, India. E-mail: rkapoor@ 123456sgpgi.ac.in
                Article
                IJU-28-21
                10.4103/0970-1591.94949
                3339780
                22557712
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Urology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Article

                Urology

                trans vaginal tape, prolapse, customized prolene mesh

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