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      Is the Efficacy of LDL Apheresis in Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Linked to a Reduction in Endothelial Activation Markers?

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          Abstract

          Endothelial dysfunction of the optic microcirculation is considered to be the main pathogenetic mechanism in nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. The aim of the present work was to assess whether a clinical improvement is correlated with a reduction in the endothelial activation markers by means of LDL apheresis (LDLA). Three weekly sessions of LDLA were administered in 23 patients affected by nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. Statistically significant reductions were achieved in all parameters: total cholesterol (44.6%), LDL cholesterol (54.6%), fibrinogen (60.9%), von Willebrand factor (38.6%), sE-Selectin (22.6%), sICAM-1 (14%) and sVCAM-1 (15.5%), each of which was correlated with an improvement in the mean deviation of the visual field, although statistical significance for the single parameters was not reached. However, analysis of variance between the mean deviation improvement and the set of parameters taken together yielded highly significant results (p < 0.0001). LDLA was effective in reducing the values of all evaluated endothelial activation markers, and this trend was correlated with an improvement in the visual field.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Fibrinogen as a risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction.

          To study the possible risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we collected data on plasma levels of coagulation factors, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and smoking in a random sample of 792 men 54 years of age. During 13.5 years of follow-up, myocardial infarction occurred in 92 men, stroke in 37, and death from causes other than myocardial infarction or stroke in 60. The blood pressure, degree of smoking, serum cholesterol, and fibrinogen level measured at the base-line examination proved to be significant risk factors for infarction by univariate analyses during follow-up, and blood pressure and fibrinogen were risk factors for stroke. Fibrinogen and smoking were strongly related to each other. The relation between fibrinogen and infarction, and between fibrinogen and stroke, became weaker when blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and smoking habits were taken into account, but was still significant for stroke. Although causality cannot be inferred from these data, it is possible that the fibrinogen level plays an important part in the development of stroke and myocardial infarction.
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            Posterior ciliary artery circulation in health and disease: the Weisenfeld lecture.

             Sohan Hayreh (2004)
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              Fibrinogen and LDL apheresis in treatment of sudden hearing loss: a randomised multicentre trial.

               M Suckfüll,   (2002)
              Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is thought to have many different origins, including disturbances of microcirculation, autoimmune pathology, and viral infection. We aimed to determine whether acute reduction of plasma fibrinogen and serum LDL is effective for treatment of SSHL of suspected vascular origin. Between January, 2000, and June, 2001, we recruited 201 patients with sudden hearing loss from four otorhinolaryngology clinics in Germany. Patients were randomly allocated to single fibrinogen/LDL apheresis or standard treatment (250 mg prednisolone reduced by 25 mg per day, 500 mL 6% hydroxyethyl starch, 400 mg pentoxifylline per day). The primary outcome was recovery of hearing as measured by pure-tone audiometry 48 h after the start of treatment. Secondary outcomes were recovery of hearing 6 weeks after treatment, improvement of speech audiometry, tinnitus, and frequency of side-effects. Analysis was done per protocol. Overall improvement of pure-tone thresholds was slightly but not significantly better in patients given apheresis than in those given standard treatment (difference 7.7, 95% CI -8.2 to 23.6). However, the mean sound level at which 50% of recorded digits were recognised was significantly lower after 48 h in the apheresis group (21.6 dB, SD 20.8) than in the standard group (29.3 dB, 29.4; p=0.034). After 6 weeks, the mean 50% speech perception was at 13.6 dB (SD 14.3) in the apheresis group and at 20.8 dB (25.4) in those on standard treatment (p=0.059). At 48 h, in patients with plasma fibrinogen concentrations of more than 295 mg/dL, speech perception was improved much more in those on apheresis (15.3 dB, 17.3) than in those on standard treatment (6.1 dB, 10.4; p=0.005). A single fibrinogen/LDL apheresis lasting for 2 h could be used as an alternative to conventional infusion treatment and prednisolone for 10 days. Patients with a plasma fibrinogen of more than 8.68 micromol/L improve much better when treated with apheresis, especially if serum LDL concentrations are also raised.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2006
                August 2006
                14 August 2006
                : 24
                : 4
                : 405-412
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Internal and Public Medicine, bDivision of Internal Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, cDivision of Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology and Otorhinolaryngology, and dCoagulation Laboratory, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
                Article
                94574 Blood Purif 2006;24:405–412
                10.1159/000094574
                16847390
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 45, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/94574
                Categories
                Original Paper

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