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      Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with the Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Multicenter Study

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Severe acute respiratory viral infections are frequency accompanied by multiple organ dysfunction, including acute kidney injury (AKI). In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and rapidly spread worldwide. While diffuse alveolar damage and acute respiratory failure are the main features of COVID-19, other organs may be involved, and the incidence of AKI is not well described. We assessed the incidence and clinical characteristics of AKI in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and its effects on clinical outcomes.

          Methods

          We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, observational study of patients with COVID-19 admitted to two general hospitals in Wuhan from 5 January 2020 to 21 March 2020. Demographic data and information on organ dysfunction were collected daily. AKI was defined according to the KDIGO clinical practice guidelines. Early and late AKI were defined as AKI occurring within 72 h after admission or after 72 h, respectively.

          Results

          Of the 116 patients, AKI developed in 21 (18.1%) patients. Among them, early and late AKI were found in 13 (11.2%) and 8 (6.9%) patients, respectively. Compared with patients without AKI, patients with AKI had more severe organ dysfunction, as indicated by a higher level of disease severity status, higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score on admission, an increased prevalence of shock, and a higher level of respiratory support. Patients with AKI had a higher SOFA score on admission (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 2.8 ± 1.4, OR 1.498, 95% CI 1.047–2.143) and greater hospital mortality (57.1% vs. 12.6%, OR 3.998, 95% CI 1.088–14.613) than patients without AKI in both the univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients with late AKI, but not those with early AKI, had a significantly prolonged length of stay (19.6 vs. 9.6 days, p = 0.015).

          Conclusion

          Our findings show that admission SOFA score was an independent risk factor for AKI in COVID-19 patients, and patients with AKI had higher in-hospital mortality. Moreover, AKI development after 72 h of admission was related to prolonged hospitalization time.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Prognosis for long-term survival and renal recovery in critically ill patients with severe acute renal failure: a population-based study

          Introduction Severe acute renal failure (sARF) is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality and use of healthcare resources; however, its precise epidemiology and long-term outcomes have not been well described in a non-specified population. Methods Population-based surveillance was conducted among all adult residents of the Calgary Health Region (population 1 million) admitted to multidisciplinary and cardiovascular surgical intensive care units between May 1 1999 and April 30 2002. Clinical records were reviewed and outcome at 1 year was assessed. Results sARF occurred in 240 patients (11.0 per 100,000 population/year). Rates were highest in males and older patients (≥65 years of age). Risk factors for development of sARF included previous heart disease, stroke, pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, connective tissue disease, chronic renal dysfunction, and alcoholism. The annual mortality rate was 7.3 per 100,000 population with rates highest in males and those ≥65 years. The 28-day, 90-day, and 1-year case-fatality rates were 51%, 60%, and 64%, respectively. Increased Charlson co-morbidity index, presence of liver disease, higher APACHE II score, septic shock, and need for continuous renal replacement therapy were independently associated with death at 1 year. Renal recovery occurred in 78% (68/87) of survivors at 1 year. Conclusion sARF is common and males, older patients, and those with underlying medical conditions are at greatest risk. Although the majority of patients with sARF will die, most survivors will become independent from renal replacement therapy within a year.
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            Acute renal failure in intensive care units--causes, outcome, and prognostic factors of hospital mortality; a prospective, multicenter study. French Study Group on Acute Renal Failure.

            To assess the causes, the prognostic factors, and the outcome of patients with severe acute renal failure. Prospective, multicenter study. Twenty French multidisciplinary intensive care units (ICUs). All patients with severe acute renal failure were prospectively enrolled in the study for a 6-month period. Severe acute renal failure was defined by the following criteria: a) a serum creatinine concentration of > or = 3.5 mg/dL ( > or = 310 mumol/L) and/or a blood urea nitrogen concentration of > or = 100 mg/dL ( > or = 36 mmol/L); or b) an increase in blood urea nitrogen or serum creatinine concentration, such that the concentration is 100% above the baseline value in patients with previous chronic renal insufficiency (serum creatinine concentration of > 1.8 mg/dL [ > 150 mumol/L]), excluding those patients with a basal serum creatinine concentration of > 3.4 mg/dL ( > 300 mumol/L). None. Age, sex, previous health status and preexisting organ dysfunction, and type and origin of acute renal failure were recorded. The Simplified Acute Physiology Score, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score, and the number of Organ System Failures were calculated on ICU day 1 and at the time of inclusion in the study. Prognostic factors were determined by univariate methods and stepwise logistic regression analysis. There were 360 patients in the study; 217 patients were admitted to the study at the time of ICU admission and 143 patients were admitted to the study after ICU admission. Only 41% of these patients were in good health 3 months before ICU entry. The reason for admission was medical in 78% of cases. The type of acute renal failure was prerenal (n = 16), renal (n = 282), or postrenal (n = 17). Renal replacement therapy was used in 174 patients. Two hundred ten (58%) patients died during the hospital stay. Using stepwide logistic regression, seven variables were predictive of death. These variables were advanced age, altered previous health status, hospitalization before ICU admission, delayed occurrence of acute renal failure, sepsis, oliguria, and severity of illness as assessed at the time of study inclusion by Simplified Acute Physiology Score, APACHE II, or Organ System Failure. The hospital mortality rate of patients with severe acute renal failure in patients requiring intensive care remains high. In order to compare patient groups in further trials concerning acute renal failure, recorded characteristics of the population should include age, previous health status, disease characteristics (initial or delayed acute renal failure, oliguria, sepsis), and the severity of the illness as assessed by physiologic scoring systems recorded at the time of study inclusion.
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              The hidden burden of influenza: A review of the extra‐pulmonary complications of influenza infection

              Severe influenza infection represents a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Although influenza is primarily considered a viral infection that results in pathology limited to the respiratory system, clinical reports suggest that influenza infection is frequently associated with a number of clinical syndromes that involve organ systems outside the respiratory tract. A comprehensive MEDLINE literature review of articles pertaining to extra‐pulmonary complications of influenza infection, using organ‐specific search terms, yielded 218 articles including case reports, epidemiologic investigations, and autopsy studies that were reviewed to determine the clinical involvement of other organs. The most frequently described clinical entities were viral myocarditis and viral encephalitis. Recognition of these extra‐pulmonary complications is critical to determining the true burden of influenza infection and initiating organ‐specific supportive care.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney Blood Press. Res
                KBR
                Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                24 July 2020
                : 1-11
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Center of Respiratory Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Institute of Respiratory Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China
                bDepartment of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
                cDepartment of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China
                Author notes
                *Qingyuan Zhan, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Center of Respiratory Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Institute of Respiratory Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, No. 2 Yinghua East Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029 (PR China), drzhanqy@ 123456163.com
                Article
                kbr-0001
                10.1159/000509517
                7445371
                32712607
                Copyright © 2020 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 24, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Article

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