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      Study familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells

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          Abstract

          Aims

          Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one the most common heart disorders, with gene mutations in the cardiac sarcomere. Studying HCM with patient-specific induced pluripotent stem-cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) would benefit the understanding of HCM mechanism, as well as the development of personalized therapeutic strategies.

          Methods and results

          To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormal CM functions in HCM, we derived iPSCs from an HCM patient with a single missense mutation (Arginine442Glycine) in the MYH7 gene. CMs were next enriched from HCM and healthy iPSCs, followed with whole transcriptome sequencing and pathway enrichment analysis. A widespread increase of genes responsible for ‘Cell Proliferation’ was observed in HCM iPSC-CMs when compared with control iPSC-CMs. Additionally, HCM iPSC-CMs exhibited disorganized sarcomeres and electrophysiological irregularities. Furthermore, disease phenotypes of HCM iPSC-CMs were attenuated with pharmaceutical treatments.

          Conclusion

          Overall, this study explored the possible patient-specific and mutation-specific disease mechanism of HCM, and demonstrates the potential of using HCM iPSC-CMs for future development of therapeutic strategies. Additionally, the whole methodology established in this study could be utilized to study mechanisms of other human-inherited heart diseases.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a systematic review.

           Barry J Maron (2002)
          Throughout the past 40 years, a vast and sometimes contradictory literature has accumulated regarding hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a genetic cardiac disease caused by a variety of mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins and characterized by a broad and expanding clinical spectrum. To clarify and summarize the relevant clinical issues and to profile rapidly evolving concepts regarding HCM. Systematic analysis of the relevant HCM literature, accessed through MEDLINE (1966-2000), bibliographies, and interactions with investigators. Diverse information was assimilated into a rigorous and objective contemporary description of HCM, affording greatest weight to prospective, controlled, and evidence-based studies. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a relatively common genetic cardiac disease (1:500 in the general population) that is heterogeneous with respect to disease-causing mutations, presentation, prognosis, and treatment strategies. Visibility attached to HCM relates largely to its recognition as the most common cause of sudden death in the young (including competitive athletes). Clinical diagnosis is by 2-dimensional echocardiographic identification of otherwise unexplained left ventricular wall thickening in the presence of a nondilated cavity. Overall, HCM confers an annual mortality rate of about 1% and in most patients is compatible with little or no disability and normal life expectancy. Subsets with higher mortality or morbidity are linked to the complications of sudden death, progressive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation with embolic stroke. Treatment strategies depend on appropriate patient selection, including drug treatment for exertional dyspnea (beta-blockers, verapamil, disopyramide) and the septal myotomy-myectomy operation, which is the standard of care for severe refractory symptoms associated with marked outflow obstruction; alcohol septal ablation and pacing are alternatives to surgery for selected patients. High-risk patients may be treated effectively for sudden death prevention with the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Substantial understanding has evolved regarding the epidemiology and clinical course of HCM, as well as novel treatment strategies that may alter its natural history. An appreciation that HCM, although an important cause of death and disability at all ages, does not invariably convey ominous prognosis and is compatible with normal longevity should dictate a large measure of reassurance for many patients.
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            Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell derived models of LEOPARD syndrome

            Generation of reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from patients with defined genetic disorders promises important avenues to understand the etiologies of complex diseases, and the development of novel therapeutic interventions. We have generated iPSC from patients with LEOPARD syndrome (LS; acronym of its main features: Lentigines, Electrocardiographic abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonary valve stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth and Deafness), an autosomal dominant developmental disorder belonging to a relatively prevalent class of inherited RAS-MAPK signaling diseases, which also includes Noonan syndrome (NS), with pleiomorphic effects on several tissues and organ systems1,2. The patient-derived cells have a mutation in the PTPN11 gene, which encodes the SHP2 phosphatase. The iPSC have been extensively characterized and produce multiple differentiated cell lineages. A major disease phenotype in patients with LEOPARD syndrome is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We show that in vitro-derived cardiomyocytes from LS-iPSC are larger, have a higher degree of sarcomeric organization and preferential localization of NFATc4 in the nucleus when compared to cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (HESC) or wild type (wt) iPSC derived from a healthy brother of one of the LS patients. These features correlate with a potential hypertrophic state. We also provide molecular insights into signaling pathways that may promote the disease phenotype.
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              Biphasic role for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in cardiac specification in zebrafish and embryonic stem cells.

              Understanding pathways controlling cardiac development may offer insights that are useful for stem cell-based cardiac repair. Developmental studies indicate that the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway negatively regulates cardiac differentiation, whereas studies with pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells suggest that this pathway promotes cardiogenesis. This apparent contradiction led us to hypothesize that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling acts biphasically, either promoting or inhibiting cardiogenesis depending on timing. We used inducible promoters to activate or repress Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in zebrafish embryos at different times of development. We found that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling before gastrulation promotes cardiac differentiation, whereas signaling during gastrulation inhibits heart formation. Early treatment of differentiating mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells with Wnt-3A stimulates mesoderm induction, activates a feedback loop that subsequently represses the Wnt pathway, and increases cardiac differentiation. Conversely, late activation of beta-catenin signaling reduces cardiac differentiation in ES cells. Finally, constitutive overexpression of the beta-catenin-independent ligand Wnt-11 increases cardiogenesis in differentiating mouse ES cells. Thus, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling promotes cardiac differentiation at early developmental stages and inhibits it later. Control of this pathway may promote derivation of cardiomyocytes for basic research and cell therapy applications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cardiovasc Res
                Cardiovasc. Res
                cardiovascres
                cardiovascres
                Cardiovascular Research
                Oxford University Press
                0008-6363
                1755-3245
                01 November 2014
                10 September 2014
                10 September 2014
                : 104
                : 2
                : 258-269
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Developmental Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 8117 Rangos Research Center , 530 45th Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15201, USA
                [2 ]Center for Cellular and Systems Electrophysiology, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, SUNY , Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa , Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
                [4 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SUNY , Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel: +1 412 692 9842; fax: +1 412 692 6184, Email: lyang@ 123456pitt.edu
                Article
                cvu205
                10.1093/cvr/cvu205
                4217687
                25209314
                © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

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                Original Articles
                Cardiac Biology and Remodelling
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                Time for primary review: 41 days

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