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      Irreversible Respiratory Failure in a Full-Term Infant with Features of Pulmonary Interstitial Glycogenosis as Well as Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

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          Abstract

          Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) is a rare interstitial lung disease in the newborns. We report on the clinical presentation and pathological findings of a full-term male infant with pulmonary hypertension requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). An open lung biopsy demonstrated interstitial changes resembling pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis as well as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), without convincing evidence of maturational arrest, infection, alveolar proteinosis, or alveolar capillary dysplasia. The boy was treated with glucocorticoids and, after a few days, was weaned from ECMO. A few hours later, the patient died due to acute severe pulmonary hypertension with acute right ventricular failure. The etiology and underlying pathogenic mechanisms of PIG are unknown. The clinical outcomes are quite varied. Deaths have been reported when PIG exists with abnormal lung development and pulmonary vascular growth and congenital heart disease. No mortality has been reported in PIG together with BPD in full-term infants. In this article, we reported on a full-term infant with interstitial changes resembling PIG and BPD who expired despite no convincing evidence of an anatomical maturational arrest or congenital heart disease.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Diffuse lung disease in young children: application of a novel classification scheme.

          Considerable confusion exists regarding nomenclature, classification, and management of pediatric diffuse lung diseases due to the relative rarity and differences in the spectrum of disease between adults and young children. A multidisciplinary working group was formed to: (1) apply consensus terminology and diagnostic criteria for disorders presenting with diffuse lung disease in infancy; and (2) describe the distribution of disease entities, clinical features, and outcome in young children who currently undergo lung biopsy in North America. Eleven centers provided pathologic material, clinical data, and imaging from all children less than 2 years of age who underwent lung biopsy for diffuse lung disease from 1999 to 2004. Multidisciplinary review categorized 88% of 187 cases. Disorders more prevalent in infancy, including primary developmental and lung growth abnormalities, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, and surfactant-dysfunction disorders, constituted the majority of cases (60%). Lung growth disorders were often unsuspected clinically and under-recognized histologically. Cases with known surfactant mutations had characteristic pathologic features. Age at biopsy and clinical presentation varied among categories. Pulmonary hypertension, presence of a primary developmental abnormality, or ABCA3 mutation was associated with high mortality, while no deaths occurred in cases of pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, or neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. This retrospective cohort study identifies a diverse spectrum of lung disorders, largely unique to young children. Application of a classification scheme grouped clinically distinct patients with variable age of biopsy and mortality. Standardized terminology and classification will enhance accurate description and diagnosis of these disorders.
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            Paediatric interstitial lung disease: classification and definitions.

             Megan Dishop (2011)
            Classifications of interstitial (diffuse) lung disease in adults and children have undergone significant revision in recent years, with advances in our understanding of new entities and the biology and prognostic significance of certain histologic patterns. The contributions of the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Interstitial Lung Disease in Children and the North American Children's Interstitial Lung Disease Group are reviewed, and a clinicopathologic classification of paediatric diffuse lung disease is summarized. Clinical characteristics and histologic definitions are also presented for selected entities within this classification, specifically, acinar dysgenesis, congenital alveolar dysplasia, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins, abnormalities of alveolar growth, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, surfactant dysfunction disorders, obliterative bronchiolitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and immunologic disorders. More uniform application of this diagnostic terminology in the future will allow more meaningful comparisons of different patient populations, radiologic-pathologic correlation, and development of disease-specific therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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              Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis: a new variant of neonatal interstitial lung disease.

              We present the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings in lung biopsies from seven infants with atypical neonatal lung disease. All seven infants presented with tachypnea, hypoxemia, and diffuse interstitial infiltrates with overinflated lungs on chest radiographs in the first month of life. Lung biopsies from all cases showed similar pathology, with expansion of the interstitium by spindle-shaped cells containing periodic acid-Schiff positive diastase labile material consistent with glycogen. Immunohistochemical staining showed these cells to be vimentin positive but negative for leucocyte common antigen, lysozyme, and other macrophage markers. Electron microscopy revealed primitive interstitial mesenchymal cells with few cytoplasmic organelles and abundant monoparticulate glycogen. Minimal or no glycogen was seen in the alveolar lining cells. Five cases were treated with pulse corticosteroids; hydroxychloroquine was added in one case. Six of seven infants have shown a favorable clinical outcome. One infant died from complications of extreme prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Three cases that have been followed for at least 6 years have shown clinical resolution and radiographic improvement. We propose the term "pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis" of the neonate for this new entity to be differentiated from other forms of interstitial lung disease. Because abundant glycogen is not normally found in pulmonary interstitial cells, we postulate an abnormality in lung cytodifferentiation involving interstitial mesenchymal cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJP Rep
                AJP Rep
                10.1055/s-00000169
                AJP Reports
                Thieme Medical Publishers (333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA. )
                2157-6998
                2157-7005
                03 June 2015
                October 2015
                : 5
                : 2
                : e136-e140
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Department of Pathology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Pediatric Surgery, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [4 ]Department of Pediatrics, VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence Maresa E. C. Jiskoot-Ermers, MD Department of Pediatrics Radboud University Medical Centre, Post Box 9101, 6500 HB, NijmegenThe Netherlands Maresa.Jiskoot@ 123456radboudumc.nl
                Article
                140033
                10.1055/s-0035-1551674
                4603843
                © Thieme Medical Publishers
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