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      Frecuencia del gen mecA en Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistente en un hospital de tercer nivel en Perú Translated title: Frequency of the mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care hospital in Peru


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          Resumen Objetivos: determinar la frecuencia del gen mecA en Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA) aislados de pacientes atendidos en un hospital de tercer nivel en la región Cajamarca, Perú; asimismo, determinar cuál de los dos antibióticos usados como screening fenotípico tiene mayor utilidad para explicar la presencia de dicho gen. Métodos: se analizaron 71 aislamientos bacterianos provenientes de muestras del Hospital Regional Docente de Cajamarca, la identificación de S. aureus se llevó a cabo mediante el equipo MicroScan. El screening fenotípico para resistencia a meticilina se realizó mediante la técnica de difusión, con discos de cefoxitina y oxacilina. La extracción de ADN se realizó mediante shock térmico, la detección del gen mecA se realizó mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el software SPSS v.25. Resultados: de los 71 aislados, 40 (56,3%) fueron MRSA portadores del gen mecA, la mayoría de estos aislamientos correspondieron a pacientes hospitalizados 22 (31,0%), siendo más frecuentes en muestras de secreción bronquial 27 (38,0%). El screening fenotípico con disco de cefoxitina predijo mejor la presencia del gen mecA [P=0,010; Exp(B)= 12,3] en comparación con el disco de oxacilina. Conclusiones: este estudio demostró alta frecuencia de MRSA mecA positivo en muestras de origen clínico, principalmente de pacientes hospitalizados. Es importante establecer medidas de vigilancia para identificar MRSA en todos los hospitales de la región.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Objective: to determine the frequency of the mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from patients treated at a third-level hospital in the Cajamarca region, Peru; as well as, to determine which of the two antibiotics used as phenotypic screening is more useful in explaining the presence of said gene. Methods: 71 bacterial isolates were analyzed from samples obtained from the Hospital Regional Docente of Cajamarca. The identification of S. aureus was carried out using the MicroScan system. Phenotypic screening for resistance to methicillin was performed using the diffusion technique with cefoxitin and oxacillin discs. DNA extraction was performed by heat shock, mecA gene detection was performed through polymerase chain reaction. For data analysis, the statistical software SPSS v.25 was used. Results: from 71 isolates, 40 (56,3%) were MRSA carriers of the mecA gene, the majority of these isolates corresponded to hospitalized patients 22 (31,0%), being more frequent in bronchial secretion samples 27 (38,0%). Phenotypic screening with cefoxitin disc was a better predictor for the presence of the mecA gene [P=0,010; Exp(B)= 12,3] compared to the oxacillin disc. Conclusions: It is shown a high frequency of positive MRSA mecA in samples of clinical origin, mainly from hospitalized patients. It is important to establish surveillance guidelines to identify MRSA in all hospitals in the region.

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          Most cited references31

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          Staphylococcus aureus infections: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

          Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical infections. It is a leading cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis as well as osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, and device-related infections. This review comprehensively covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management of each of these clinical entities. The past 2 decades have witnessed two clear shifts in the epidemiology of S. aureus infections: first, a growing number of health care-associated infections, particularly seen in infective endocarditis and prosthetic device infections, and second, an epidemic of community-associated skin and soft tissue infections driven by strains with certain virulence factors and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. In reviewing the literature to support management strategies for these clinical manifestations, we also highlight the paucity of high-quality evidence for many key clinical questions.
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            Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an overview of basic and clinical research

            Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most successful modern pathogens. The same organism that lives as a commensal and is transmitted in both health-care and community settings is also a leading cause of bacteraemia, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections and hospital-acquired infections. Genetically diverse, the epidemiology of MRSA is primarily characterized by the serial emergence of epidemic strains. Although its incidence has recently declined in some regions, MRSA still poses a formidable clinical threat, with persistently high morbidity and mortality. Successful treatment remains challenging and requires the evaluation of both novel antimicrobials and adjunctive aspects of care, such as infectious disease consultation, echocardiography and source control. In this Review, we provide an overview of basic and clinical MRSA research and summarize the expansive body of literature on the epidemiology, transmission, genetic diversity, evolution, surveillance and treatment of MRSA.
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              Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

              Since the 1960s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged, disseminated globally and become a leading cause of bacterial infections in both health-care and community settings. However, there is marked geographical variation in MRSA burden owing to several factors, including differences in local infection control practices and pathogen-specific characteristics of the circulating clones. Different MRSA clones have resulted from the independent acquisition of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), which contains genes encoding proteins that render the bacterium resistant to most β-lactam antibiotics (such as methicillin), by several S. aureus clones. The success of MRSA is a consequence of the extensive arsenal of virulence factors produced by S. aureus combined with β-lactam resistance and, for most clones, resistance to other antibiotic classes. Clinical manifestations of MRSA range from asymptomatic colonization of the nasal mucosa to mild skin and soft tissue infections to fulminant invasive disease with high mortality. Although treatment options for MRSA are limited, several new antimicrobials are under development. An understanding of colonization dynamics, routes of transmission, risk factors for progression to infection and conditions that promote the emergence of resistance will enable optimization of strategies to effectively control MRSA. Vaccine candidates are also under development and could become an effective prevention measure.

                Author and article information

                Gaceta Médica Boliviana
                Gac Med Bol
                Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Mayor de San Simón (Cochabamba, , Bolivia )
                : 46
                : 1
                : 27-32
                [1] Cajamarca Lima orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Cajamarca orgdiv1Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas orgdiv2Laboratorio de Microbiología Peru
                [2] Lambayeque orgnameUniversidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Perú
                [3] Cajamarca orgnameUniversidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Perú
                [4] Cajamarca Lima orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Cajamarca orgdiv1Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas Peru
                S1012-29662023000100027 S1012-2966(23)04600100027

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 29 November 2022
                : 17 February 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 31, Pages: 6

                SciELO Bolivia

                Artículo Original

                Peru,Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina,reacción en cadena de la polimerasa,farmacorresistencia microbiana,Perú,methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,polymerase chain reaction,microbial drug resistance


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