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      Salt and Blood Pressure: Time to Challenge

      ,

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      Clinical trials, Meta-analysis, Sodium reduction, Blood pressure

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          Abstract

          Hypertension is a worldwide epidemic and its control is costly, but still inadequate. The mechanisms underlying the development of primary hypertension remain elusive. Several observations point to the kidney as a primary actor and sodium as the main culprit for development of hypertension. Over the last few decades, experimental, observational and clinical data have continuously indicated that excess salt intake is positively associated with elevated blood pressure and that blood pressure can be significantly reduced with substantial reductions in dietary sodium. This review highlights the pathophysiological mechanisms linking sodium to elevated blood pressure, synthesizes available evidence for the effect of reducing salt intake in controlling blood pressure. It specifically analyzes 6 recent meta-analyses and dietary approaches to stop hypertension.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels in 6 European countries, Canada, and the United States.

          Geographic variations in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors have been recognized worldwide. However, little attention has been directed to potential differences in hypertension between Europe and North America. To determine whether higher blood pressure (BP) levels and hypertension are more prevalent in Europe than in the United States and Canada. Sample surveys that were national in scope and conducted in the 1990s were identified in Germany, Finland, Sweden, England, Spain, Italy, Canada, and the United States. Collaborating investigators provided tabular data in a consistent format by age and sex for persons at least 35 years of age. Population registries were the main basis for sampling. Survey sizes ranged from 1800 to 23 100, with response rates of 61% to 87.5%. The data were analyzed to provide age-specific and age-adjusted estimates of BP and hypertension prevalence by country and region (eg, European vs North American). Blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension in Europe, the United States, and Canada. Average BP was 136/83 mm Hg in the European countries and 127/77 mm Hg in Canada and the United States among men and women combined who were 35 to 74 years of age. This difference already existed among younger persons (35-39 years) in whom treatment was uncommon (ie, 124/78 mm Hg and 115/75 mm Hg, respectively), and the slope with age was steeper in the European countries. For all age groups, BP measurements were lowest in the United States and highest in Germany. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 28% in the North American countries and 44% in the European countries at the 140/90 mm Hg threshold. The findings for men and women by region were similar. Hypertension prevalence was strongly correlated with stroke mortality (r = 0.78) and more modestly with total CVD (r = 0.44). Despite extensive research on geographic patterns of CVD, the 60% higher prevalence of hypertension in Europe compared with the United States and Canada has not been generally appreciated. The implication of this finding for national prevention strategies should be vigorously explored.
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            Assessment of frequency of progression to hypertension in non-hypertensive participants in the Framingham Heart Study: a cohort study.

             W Kannel,  R Vasan,  E Leip (2001)
            Patients with optimum ( 140/90 mm Hg) over time. We aimed to establish the best frequency of BP screening by assessing the rates and determinants of progression to hypertension. We assessed repeated BP measurements in individuals without hypertension (BP<140/90 mm Hg) from the Framingham Study (4200 men, 5645 women; mean age 52 years) who attended clinic examinations during 1978-94. The incidence of hypertension (or use of antihypertensive treatment) and its determinants were studied. A stepwise increase in hypertension incidence occurred across the three non-hypertensive BP categories; 5.3% (95% CI 4.4-6.3%) of participants with optimum BP, 17.6% (15.2-20.3%) with normal, and 37.3% (33.3-41.5%) with high normal BP aged below age 65 years progressed to hypertension over 4 years. Corresponding 4-year rates of progression for patients 65 years and older were 16.0% (12.0-20.9), 25.5% (20.4-31.4), and 49.5% (42.6-56.4), respectively. Obesity and weight gain also contributed to progression; a 5% weight gain on follow-up was associated with 20-30% increased odds of hypertension. High normal BP and normal BP frequently progress to hypertension over a period of 4 years, especially in older adults. These findings support recommendations for monitoring individuals with high normal BP once a year, and monitoring those with normal BP every 2 years, and they emphasise the importance of weight control as a measure for primary prevention of hypertension.
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              Nephron number in patients with primary hypertension.

              A diminished number of nephrons has been proposed as one of the factors contributing to the development of primary hypertension. To test this hypothesis, we used a three-dimensional stereologic method to compare the number and volume of glomeruli in 10 middle-aged white patients (age range, 35 to 59 years) with a history of primary hypertension or left ventricular hypertrophy (or both) and renal arteriolar lesions with the number and volume in 10 normotensive subjects matched for sex, age, height, and weight. All 20 subjects had died in accidents. Patients with hypertension had significantly fewer glomeruli per kidney than matched normotensive controls (median, 702,379 vs. 1,429,200). Patients with hypertension also had a significantly greater glomerular volume than did the controls (median, 6.50x10(-3) mm3 vs. 2.79x10(-3) mm3; P<0.001) but very few obsolescent glomeruli. The data support the hypothesis that the number of nephrons is reduced in white patients with primary hypertension. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2006
                November 2005
                24 November 2005
                : 105
                : 1
                : 9-16
                Affiliations
                Unit of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
                Article
                88265 Cardiology 2006;105:9–16
                10.1159/000088265
                16166773
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 71, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Review – Hypertension

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