Some proteins can be preserved in archaeological specimens for 1 million years or so. The group of the authors tries to extract proteins from animal bones, teeth, hides, shells, and proteinacious fibres such as wool and silk textiles, all of which have been collected from all over the world with the help of many collaborators. The oldest proteins obtained in such apecimens include collagen from the animal bones excavated from a Paleolithic site dated to about 45 thousand years from present. The authors analyse the amino acid sequence of each protein by mass spectrometry to identify the animal species. The authors are also interested in animal glues preserved in mural paintings and arts in cultural heritages, hoping to gain insights into ancient culture and civilization.