Lida M. Rodas a , d , e , * , Estibaliz Ruiz-Ortiz b , Adriana Garcia-Herrera c , d , Arturo Pereira a , e , Miquel Blasco a , d , e , Pedro Ventura-Aguiar a , e , Odette Viñas Gomis b , Natalia Egri b , Erika De Sousa a , e , Eduard Palou b , Fritz Diekmann a , e , Esteban Poch a , e , Josep M. Campistol a , e , Luis Fernando Quintana a , d , e
18 March 2020
Background: Recurrence of immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (rIgAN) is a growing cause of kidney allograft dysfunction. This study was aimed at investigating factors associated with rIgAN and the subsequent progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods: Retrospective study including consecutive patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) who received a kidney transplant in our center between 1992 and 2016 and had a renal biopsy by clinical indication. The date of detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD) 5 was used as renal outcome. Results: Eighty-six kidney transplants were performed in patients with IgAN, 38 (44%) were from living donors (related n = 26). rIgAN was diagnosed in 23 allografts (27%). Renal function and proteinuria at the end of the follow-up period were worst in the rIgAN patients compared to those without rIgAN (2.2 vs. 1.4 mg/dL, p = 0.014, and 1.16 vs. 0.49 g/day, p = 0.005, respectively). Risk of rIgAN and progression to CKD 5 decreased with patient’s age (hazard ratio [HR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.98, p = 0.002, and HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.83–0.97, p = 0.008 per year, respectively). Patients with rIgAN had a higher risk of progression to CKD 5 (HR 6.7, 95% CI 1.3–35.7, p = 0.025). Full donor-recipient mismatch in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B loci decreased the risk of rIgAN (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06–0.76, p = 0.017). Conclusions: rIgAN was an independent risk factor for ESRD after renal allograft. Younger age increased the risk of rIgAN and CKD 5. Conversely, HLA-B mismatching was a potential protective factor for rIgAN of this glomerular disease.