Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, noninvasive and simple morphological and functional methods have been introduced to assess atherosclerotic vascular damage. This review describes the association of CKD with vascular damage as assessed by these methods. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) are morphological parameters of vascular damage, and an ankle-brachial index (ABI) <0.90 suggests the presence of peripheral arterial disease (i.e., it represents advanced atherosclerosis). Several prospective studies have demonstrated that CKD is a risk factor for an increased IMT, an increased CACS and a decreased ABI. While it has not been clarified whether measuring the IMT or CACS might be useful to predict the progression of renal function decline, a reduced ABI has been demonstrated as a predictor of accelerated renal function decline. On the other hand, pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a marker of arterial stiffness rather than atherosclerosis, reflecting functional abnormalities caused by vascular damage, and moderate-to-severe CKD may be a risk factor for the progression of arterial stiffness. The measurement of functional markers, especially of PWV or pulse pressure, has been demonstrated to be useful to predict the rate of progression of renal function decline. Thus, renal dysfunction and atherogenic states may be components of a vicious cycle, and vascular function abnormalities associated with atherosclerosis may accelerate this cycle. As the next step, we propose to examine whether improvement of vascular function abnormalities can interrupt this vicious cycle.