Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), in which the lifelong hypercalcemia is generally asymptomatic. Homozygous loss-of-function CASR mutations manifest as neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT), a rare disorder characterized by extreme hypercalcemia and the bony changes of hyperparathyroidism, which occur in infancy. Activating mutations in the CASR gene have been identified in several families with autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH), autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism, or hypocalcemic hypercalciuria. Individuals with ADH may have mild hypocalcemia and relatively few symptoms. However, in some cases seizures can occur, especially in younger patients, and these often happen during febrile episodes due to intercurrent infection. Thus far, 112 naturally-occurring mutations in the human CASR gene have been reported, of which 80 are unique and 32 are recurrent. To better understand the mutations causing defects in the CASR gene and to define specific regions relevant for ligand-receptor interaction and other receptor functions, the data on mutations were collected and the information was centralized in the CASRdb (www.casrdb.mcgill.ca), which is easily and quickly accessible by search engines for retrieval of specific information. The information can be searched by mutation, genotype-phenotype, clinical data, in vitro analyses, and authors of publications describing the mutations. CASRdb is regularly updated for new mutations and it also provides a mutation submission form to ensure up-to-date information. The home page of this database provides links to different web pages that are relevant to the CASR, as well as disease clinical pages, sequence of the CASR gene exons, and position of mutations in the CASR. The CASRdb will help researchers to better understand and analyze the mutations, and aid in structure-function analyses. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.