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      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
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      Basal Cell Carcinomas of the Eyelids

      review-article
      , ,
      Ophthalmologica
      S. Karger AG
      Reconstructive surgery, Basal cell carcinoma, Eyelid

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          Abstract

          Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) are the more frequent malignant tumors seen in France as in other western countries. They represent 20% of eyelid tumors and 90% of eyelid malignancies. Due to their local growth, problems may arise when treating BCC, and curative exeresis must be the preferred choice each time it is possible. BCC of the eyelids have a high risk of recurrence. Recurrences are more aggressive, infiltrative and destructive and have a considerably poorer rate of cure than primary tumors. Eyelid reconstructions can entail use of complex methods which should only be carried out by a trained ophthalmologist who is also able to treat any associated age-related ocular pathologies. BCC is the most common cause leading to eyelid reconstructive surgery; a surgery which has a triple objective: tumor removal, functionality and an esthetic outcome.

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          Most cited references62

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          Xeroderma pigmentosum. Cutaneous, ocular, and neurologic abnormalities in 830 published cases.

          Quantitative frequencies of clinical abnormalities in xeroderma pigmentosum were estimated by abstracting published descriptions of 830 patients in 297 articles obtained from a survey of the medical literature from 1874 to 1982. The median patient age was 12 years with nearly equal numbers of male and female patients. Cutaneous symptoms (sun sensitivity or freckling) had a median age of onset of between 1 and 2 years. Forty-five percent of the patients described had basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The median age of first nonmelanoma skin cancer among patients with xeroderma pigmentosum was 8 years, more than 50 years less than that among patients with skin cancer in the United States. Melanomas were reported in 5% of patients. Ninety-seven percent of the reported basal and squamous cell carcinomas and 65% of the melanomas in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum occurred on the face, head, or neck. Seventy percent probability of survival was attained at age 40 years, a 28-year reduction in comparison with the US general population. Ocular abnormalities were reported in 40% of the patients described and were restricted to tissues exposed to ultraviolet radiation (lid, conjunctiva, and cornea) and included ectropion, corneal opacity leading to blindness, and neoplasms. Neurologic abnormalities were found in 18% of the cases reported, consisting of progressive mental deterioration, hyporeflexia or areflexia, and progressive deafness in some patients in association with dwarfism and immature sexual development. There was scant information concerning the efficacy of any therapeutic regimen.
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            Does intermittent sun exposure cause basal cell carcinoma? a case-control study in Western Australia.

            Our report deals with the relationship of pattern and timing of sun exposure to basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in a population-based case-control study conducted in Western Australia in 1988. The main measure of intermittent exposure was based on the amount of exposure on non-working days relative to that over the whole week. Outdoor recreational activities, holidays and sunburn were also considered to be markers of intermittent exposure. We observed a statistically significant increase in risk of BCC with increasing proportion of weekly sun exposure obtained at the weekend, especially in late teenage (OR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.9-7.8 for maximum intermittency of exposure), exposure of the site of skin cancer during holidays (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1 for the highest exposure quarter) and sunburn to the site (ORs of 1.8 for 3-10 and 1.5 for 11+ sunburns in a lifetime). Risk of BCC increased substantially with increasing intermittency in poor tanners but not at all in good tanners. Our data suggest that a particular amount of sun exposure delivered in infrequent, probably intense increments will increase risk of BCC more than a similar dose delivered more continuously over the same total period of time.
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              Skin cancer in African Americans.

              Skin cancer is the most common type of malignancy in the United States. Incidence within the African American population remains relatively low, but data is limited for this racial group, making accurate determination of incidence and mortality difficult. Factors implicated as causative in the pathogenesis of cutaneous malignancy in African Americans include, but are by no means limited to, sunlight, albinism, burn scars, X-rays, preexisting pigmented lesions, chronic inflammation, and chronic discoid lupus erythematosus. Anatomic distribution of lesions may be similar to that seen in whites for basal cell carcinoma but not for other skin cancers. For squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, African Americans do not as well in terms of mortality as do whites. This difference probably is due either to the fact that African Americans have more advanced stages of disease at diagnosis than do whites or, in some cases, because the course of the disease is more aggressive in African Americans for reasons yet unknown. There is a need for heightened awareness of skin cancer in African Americans by patients and physicians. Emphasis should be on education and early diagnosis with the primary goal in mind being the reduction of incidence of and mortality due to skin cancer in African Americans. In addition, because of environmental factors, African Americans will be exposed to more solar ultraviolet radiation in the future. Strategies should be developed for public education to keep this exposure to low levels in this racial group.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2005
                April 2005
                24 March 2005
                : 219
                : 2
                : 57-71
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology, Pr. Renard, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, Paris, France
                Article
                83263 Ophthalmologica 2005;219:57–71
                10.1159/000083263
                15802929
                e0661ea5-a28c-4932-95f8-554e9b0b0e02
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 08 July 2004
                : 22 July 2004
                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 141, Pages: 15
                Categories
                Review

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Reconstructive surgery,Eyelid,Basal cell carcinoma

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