We previously demonstrated that mice subjected to a hypoproteinic diet showed milder chronic lesions on infection with Schistosoma mansoni than normally fed mice. Here we compare the immune response of well-nourished and undernourished mice with chronic S. mansoni infection. The proliferative response and cytokine (IFN-gamma and IL-5) production of splenocytes from undernourished mice against the soluble egg antigen (SEA) of S. mansoni or concanavalin A was similar to that of well-nourished mice. The levels of SEA-specific IgG1, IgG2b and IgG3 antibodies were significantly higher in the sera of well-nourished mice in comparison with undernourished mice. Undernourished animals also exhibited diminished periovular granuloma size compared to well-nourished infected controls. Our results support the importance of host nutritional status in the humoral immune response of mice and its effects on the development of periovular granulomas in malnourished animals infected with S. mansoni.