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      A Comprehensive Comparative Study for the Authentication of the Kadsura Crude Drug

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          Abstract

          The stems and roots of Kadsura species have been used as the folk medicine in Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and have good traditional efficacy and medicinal application with a long history. Among these species, K. coccinea, K. heteroclita and K. longipedunculata are the most widely distributed species in the regions of south and southwest China. Owing to their similar appearance, the crude drugs are often confusedly used by some folk doctors, even some pharmaceutical factories. To discriminate the crude drugs, haplotype analysis based on cpDNA markers and ITS was firstly employed in this study. Generic delimitation, interspecific interrelationships, and the identification of medicinal materials between K. longipedunculata and K. heteroclita remained unresolved by the existing molecular fragments. The original plant could be identified through the morphological character of flower, fruit and leaf. However, in most situation collectors have no chance to find out these characters due to lack of reproductive organs, and have no experience with the minor difference and transitional variation of leaf morphology. The chemical characterization show that the chemometric of chemical composition owned higher resolution to discriminate three herbs of Kadsura species. In conclusion, this integrative approach involving molecular phylogeny, morphology and chemical characterization could be applied for authentication of the Kadusra. Our study suggests the use of this comprehensive approach for accurate characterization of this closely related taxa as well as identifying the source plant and confused herbs of TCM.

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          Most cited references 32

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          A DNA barcode for land plants.

            (2009)
          DNA barcoding involves sequencing a standard region of DNA as a tool for species identification. However, there has been no agreement on which region(s) should be used for barcoding land plants. To provide a community recommendation on a standard plant barcode, we have compared the performance of 7 leading candidate plastid DNA regions (atpF-atpH spacer, matK gene, rbcL gene, rpoB gene, rpoC1 gene, psbK-psbI spacer, and trnH-psbA spacer). Based on assessments of recoverability, sequence quality, and levels of species discrimination, we recommend the 2-locus combination of rbcL+matK as the plant barcode. This core 2-locus barcode will provide a universal framework for the routine use of DNA sequence data to identify specimens and contribute toward the discovery of overlooked species of land plants.
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            Use of DNA barcodes to identify flowering plants.

            Methods for identifying species by using short orthologous DNA sequences, known as "DNA barcodes," have been proposed and initiated to facilitate biodiversity studies, identify juveniles, associate sexes, and enhance forensic analyses. The cytochrome c oxidase 1 sequence, which has been found to be widely applicable in animal barcoding, is not appropriate for most species of plants because of a much slower rate of cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene evolution in higher plants than in animals. We therefore propose the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region and the plastid trnH-psbA intergenic spacer as potentially usable DNA regions for applying barcoding to flowering plants. The internal transcribed spacer is the most commonly sequenced locus used in plant phylogenetic investigations at the species level and shows high levels of interspecific divergence. The trnH-psbA spacer, although short ( approximately 450-bp), is the most variable plastid region in angiosperms and is easily amplified across a broad range of land plants. Comparison of the total plastid genomes of tobacco and deadly nightshade enhanced with trials on widely divergent angiosperm taxa, including closely related species in seven plant families and a group of species sampled from a local flora encompassing 50 plant families (for a total of 99 species, 80 genera, and 53 families), suggest that the sequences in this pair of loci have the potential to discriminate among the largest number of plant species for barcoding purposes.
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              MetaboAnalyst 2.0—a comprehensive server for metabolomic data analysis

              First released in 2009, MetaboAnalyst (www.metaboanalyst.ca) was a relatively simple web server designed to facilitate metabolomic data processing and statistical analysis. With continuing advances in metabolomics along with constant user feedback, it became clear that a substantial upgrade to the original server was necessary. MetaboAnalyst 2.0, which is the successor to MetaboAnalyst, represents just such an upgrade. MetaboAnalyst 2.0 now contains dozens of new features and functions including new procedures for data filtering, data editing and data normalization. It also supports multi-group data analysis, two-factor analysis as well as time-series data analysis. These new functions have also been supplemented with: (i) a quality-control module that allows users to evaluate their data quality before conducting any analysis, (ii) a functional enrichment analysis module that allows users to identify biologically meaningful patterns using metabolite set enrichment analysis and (iii) a metabolic pathway analysis module that allows users to perform pathway analysis and visualization for 15 different model organisms. In developing MetaboAnalyst 2.0 we have also substantially improved its graphical presentation tools. All images are now generated using anti-aliasing and are available over a range of resolutions, sizes and formats (PNG, TIFF, PDF, PostScript, or SVG). To improve its performance, MetaboAnalyst 2.0 is now hosted on a much more powerful server with substantially modified code to take advantage the server’s multi-core CPUs for computationally intensive tasks. MetaboAnalyst 2.0 also maintains a collection of 50 or more FAQs and more than a dozen tutorials compiled from user queries and requests. A downloadable version of MetaboAnalyst 2.0, along detailed instructions for local installation is now available as well.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1663-9812
                22 January 2019
                2018
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College , Beijing, China
                [2] 2Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine (Peking Union Medical College), Ministry of Education , Beijing, China
                [3] 3Engineering Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources, Ministry of Education , Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Karl Tsim, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong

                Reviewed by: Shuai Ji, Xuzhou Medical University, China; Jianping Chen, Shenzhen Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, China

                *Correspondence: Haitao Liu, htliu0718@ 123456126.com

                This article was submitted to Ethnopharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Article
                10.3389/fphar.2018.01576
                6357937
                e07625a8-21a0-408a-b29e-38d834767750
                Copyright © 2019 Liu, Wei, Zhang, Qi, Zhang, Liu and Xiao.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 46, Pages: 11, Words: 0
                Categories
                Pharmacology
                Original Research

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