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      Functional Assessment of Coronary Arteries by Poststenotic Intravascular Doppler Ultrasound

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          Abstract

          This study sought to delineate the impact of the rate pressure product on intraluminal Doppler velocity measurements and to determine the relation between poststenotic vasodilator reserve and percent luminal obstruction in coronary vessels. Twenty patients with single-vessel coronary disease were studied prior to coronary angioplasty and at follow-up 6 months later. Intracoronary velocity reserve after administration of adenosine was measured distal to the stenosis with a Doppler-tipped guide wire and was compared to quantitative coronary angiography and adenosine myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The rate pressure product was confirmed as significant covariate (ANCOVA, p < 0.005) of intracoronary Doppler reserve. When normalized to rate pressure product, poststenotic Doppler velocity reserve in stenosed arteries was significantly lower than in patent arteries as classified by quantitative coronary angiography (1.7 ± 0.6 vs. 2.9 ± 0.5, p < 0.001) and perfusion scintigraphy (1.5 ± 0.4 vs. 2.8 ± 0.5, p < 0.001). Normalized Doppler velocity reserve showed a nonlinear but highly significant relation to percent area stenosis [y = 3.0·(1 – exp[0.081 (x – 100)]), p < 0.001]. When normalized Doppler velocity reserve was less than 2.0, coronary disease was identified with 95% specificity and 94% sensitivity in comparison to perfusion scintigraphy. Thus, in coronary arteries poststenotic Doppler reserve and percent area stenosis show a significant nonlinear relation. Doppler velocity reserve when normalized to rate pressure product can be used to characterize the hemodynamic impact of coronary obstructions.

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          Measurement of fractional flow reserve to assess the functional severity of coronary-artery stenoses.

          The clinical significance of coronary-artery stenoses of moderate severity can be difficult to determine. Myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a new index of the functional severity of coronary stenoses that is calculated from pressure measurements made during coronary arteriography. We compared this index with the results of noninvasive tests commonly used to detect myocardial ischemia, to determine the usefulness of the index. In 45 consecutive patients with moderate coronary stenosis and chest pain of uncertain origin, we performed bicycle exercise testing, thallium scintigraphy, stress echocardiography with dobutamine, and quantitative coronary arteriography and compared the results with measurements of FFR. In all 21 patients with an FFR of less than 0.75, reversible myocardial ischemia was demonstrated unequivocally on at least one noninvasive test. After coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery was performed, all the positive test results reverted to normal. In contrast, 21 of the 24 patients with an FFR of 0.75 or higher tested negative for reversible myocardial ischemia on all the noninvasive tests. No revascularization procedures were performed in these patients, and none were required during 14 months of follow-up. The sensitivity of FFR in the identification of reversible ischemia was 88 percent, the specificity 100 percent, the positive predictive value 100 percent, the negative predictive value 88 percent, and the accuracy 93 percent. In patients with coronary stenosis of moderate severity, FFR appears to be a useful index of the functional severity of the stenoses and the need for coronary revascularization.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            JVR
            J Vasc Res
            10.1159/issn.1018-1172
            Journal of Vascular Research
            S. Karger AG
            1018-1172
            1423-0135
            2000
            December 2000
            10 January 2001
            : 37
            : 6
            : 594-602
            Affiliations
            Department of Cardiology, University of Vienna, Austria
            Article
            54093 J Vasc Res 2000;37:594–602
            10.1159/000054093
            11146414
            © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 36, Pages: 9
            Categories
            Research Paper

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