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      Lipotoxicity: when tissues overeat :

      Current Opinion in Lipidology

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Most cited references 54

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          Lipid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Human Muscle Is Associated With Changes in Diacylglycerol, Protein Kinase C, and I B- 

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            A novel mouse model of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy.

            Inherited and acquired cardiomyopathies are associated with marked intracellular lipid accumulation in the heart. To test the hypothesis that mismatch between myocardial fatty acid uptake and utilization leads to the accumulation of cardiotoxic lipid species, and to establish a mouse model of metabolic cardiomyopathy, we generated transgenic mouse lines that overexpress long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase in the heart (MHC-ACS). This protein plays an important role in vectorial fatty acid transport across the plasma membrane. MHC-ACS mice demonstrate cardiac-restricted expression of the transgene and marked cardiac myocyte triglyceride accumulation. Lipid accumulation is associated with initial cardiac hypertrophy, followed by the development of left-ventricular dysfunction and premature death. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining and cytochrome c release in transgenic hearts suggest that cardiac myocyte death occurs, in part, by lipid-induced programmed cell death. Taken together, our data demonstrate that fatty acid uptake/utilization mismatch in the heart leads to accumulation of lipid species toxic to cardiac myocytes. This novel mouse model will provide insight into the role of perturbations in myocardial lipid metabolism in the pathogenesis of inherited and acquired forms of heart failure.
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              Ceramide generation is sufficient to account for the inhibition of the insulin-stimulated PKB pathway in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells pretreated with palmitate.

              We have employed C2C12 myotubes to investigate lipid inhibition of insulin-stimulated signal transduction and glucose metabolism. Cells were preincubated for 18 h in the absence or presence of free fatty acids (FFAs) and stimulated with insulin, and the effects on glycogen synthesis and signaling intermediates were determined. While the unsaturated FFAs oleate and linoleate inhibited both basal and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis, the saturated FFA palmitate reduced only insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis, and was found to inhibit insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and protein kinase B (PKB). However, no effect of palmitate was observed on tyrosine phosphorylation, p85 association, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in IRS-1 immunoprecipitates. In contrast, palmitate promoted phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein MAP) kinases. Ceramide, a derivative of palmitate, has recently been associated with similar inhibition of PKB, and here, ceramide levels were found to be elevated 2-fold in palmitate-treated C2C12 cells. Incubation of C2C12 cells with ceramide closely reproduced the effects of palmitate, leading to inhibition of glycogen synthesis and PKB and to stimulation of MAP kinase. We conclude that palmitate-induced insulin resistance occurs by a mechanism distinct from that of unsaturated FFAs, and involves elevation of ceramide by de novo synthesis, leading to PKB inhibition without affecting IRS-1 function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Current Opinion in Lipidology
                Current Opinion in Lipidology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0957-9672
                2003
                June 2003
                : 14
                : 3
                : 281-287
                Article
                10.1097/00041433-200306000-00008
                © 2003

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