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      The importance of Anopheles albitarsis E and An. darlingi in human malaria transmission in Boa Vista, state of Roraima, Brazil

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          Abstract

          In several districts of Boa Vista, state of Roraima, Brazil we found Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis E to be the primary vector of human malaria parasites, and during 2001-2002 it was significantly more abundant than An. darlingi (p < 0.001). Other species sampled were An. (Nys.) braziliensis, An. (Ano.) peryassui, An. (Nys.) nuneztovari, An. (Nys.) oswaldoi s.l., and An. (Nys.) triannulatus. As determined by the ELISA technique An. darlingi had a higher overall infection rate (2.1%) compared with An. albitarsis E (1.2%). However, a marginally higher proportion of An. albitarsis E was infected with Plasmodium vivax compared with An. darlingi, and the An. albitarsis E biting index was also much higher. These results suggest the importance of An. albitarsis E in malaria transmission in a savannah ecoregion of northern Amazonian Brazil, and reconfirm the importance of An. darlingi even if at lower abundance.

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          Comparative susceptibility of anopheline mosquitoes in Rondonia, Brazil to infection by Plasmodium vivax.

          Seven anopheline species from Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil were compared with Anopheles darlingi for susceptibility to infection by Plasmodium vivax. Laboratory-reared F1 progeny of field-collected An. darlingi and the test anopheline species were fed at the same time on the same patients, all of whom had gametocytes in peripheral blood before treatment. Mosquitoes were dissected on day 8 after infection for oocysts and on days 14-16 after infection for sporozoites. The mean numbers of P. vivax oocysts and the percent of salivary gland infections for An. darlingi and An. deaneorum were similar and far exceeded those found in the other anopheline species tested. Anopheles albitarsis and An. mediopunctatus were less susceptible to infection by oocyst measurements than An. darlingi. However, for oocyst-infected An. albitarsis and An. mediopunctatus, the percent of mosquitoes with salivary gland infections and the numbers of sporozoites in the salivary glands were similar to An. darlingi. Anopheles triannulatus and An. oswaldoi were both susceptible to P. vivax infection, but the sporozoite infection rates and the numbers of sporozoites observed in the salivary glands were very low. Anopheles braziliensis and An. benarrochi both developed oocysts, but were never observed to have sporozoites in the salivary glands. These studies implicate some anopheline species as potential malaria vectors, but also show that species previously incriminated by ELISA techniques are not vectors of malaria parasites in Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil.
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            Malaria vectors in the municipality of Serra do Navio, State of Amapá, Amazon Region, Brazil

            We conducted a survey to determine the vectors of malaria in six localities of Serra do Navio municipality, State of Amapá, from 1990 to 1991. Malaria infection rates of 29.3%, 6.2% and 20.4% were detected by human blood smears in Colônia Água Branca, Porto Terezinha and Arrependido, respectively. There was no malaria infection detected in Serra do Navio. Fifteen species were identified among 3,053 anopheline mosquitoes collected by human bait and 64.4% were identified as Anopheles albitarsis s.l., 16.7% An. braziliensis, 9.5% An. nuneztovari and 5.8% An. triannulatus. An. darlingi, the main vector of malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil, was scare. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a total positive rate of 0.8% (23/2876) was found for six species: fifteen An. albitarsis s.l., four An. nuneztovari, and one of each: An. braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. oswaldoi and An. rangeli. Nine of 23 positive mosquitoes were infected with Plasmodium malariae, eight with P. vivax VK210, three with P. vivax VK247 and three with P. falciparum. Since An. albitarsis s.l. was collected feeding on humans, was present in the highest density and was positive by ELISA for malaria sporozoites, it probably plays an important role in malaria transmission in this area.
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              Comparative susceptibility of anopheline mosquitoes to Plasmodium falciparum in Rondonia, Brazil.

              Five anopheline species, Anopheles deaneorum, An. albitarsis, An. triannulatus, An. oswaldoi, and An. mediopunctatus were compared to An. darlingi for susceptibility to infection by P. falciparum in Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil. Laboratory reared F1 An. darlingi and anopheline test species were allowed to feed at the same time on falciparum malaria patients who had gametocytes in their blood, and who had not yet been treated with quinine. Mosquitoes were dissected and examined for oocysts on day 9, and for sporozoites on days 16-20 after feeding. Anopheles mediopunctatus had higher mean numbers of oocysts and oocyst positive rates than An. darlingi. The oocyst positive rate and the mean number of oocysts in An. deaneorum and An. darlingi were similar. Anopheles triannulatus and An. oswaldoi had fewer oocysts than An. darlingi. The salivary gland sporozoite infection rate was similar for An. mediopunctatus and An. deaneorum and much lower for An. triannulatus and An. oswaldoi when compared to An. darlingi. Anopheles albitarsis developed oocysts, but sporozoites did not invade the salivary glands. In relative levels of susceptibility to P. falciparum, An. darlingi was equal to An. mediopunctatus which was greater than An. deaneorum, which was greater than An. triannulatus, which was greater than An. oswaldoi.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                mioc
                Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
                Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
                Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde (Rio de Janeiro )
                1678-8060
                March 2006
                : 101
                : 2
                : 163-168
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Instituto Evandro Chagas Brazil
                [2 ] Secretaria Municipal de Saúde Brazil
                [3 ] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention US
                [4 ] University of Connecticut United States
                [5 ] New York State Department of Health United States
                Article
                S0074-02762006000200008
                10.1590/S0074-02762006000200008
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                PARASITOLOGY
                TROPICAL MEDICINE

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