Marinete Marins Póvoa 1 , Raimundo Tadeu Lessa de Souza 1 , Raimundo Nonato da Luz Lacerda 1 , Edvaldo Santa Rosa 1 , Deocleciano Galiza 1 , James Rodrigues de Souza 2 , Robert A Wirtz 3 , Carl D Schlichting 4 , Jan E Conn 5
In several districts of Boa Vista, state of Roraima, Brazil we found Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis E to be the primary vector of human malaria parasites, and during 2001-2002 it was significantly more abundant than An. darlingi (p < 0.001). Other species sampled were An. (Nys.) braziliensis, An. (Ano.) peryassui, An. (Nys.) nuneztovari, An. (Nys.) oswaldoi s.l., and An. (Nys.) triannulatus. As determined by the ELISA technique An. darlingi had a higher overall infection rate (2.1%) compared with An. albitarsis E (1.2%). However, a marginally higher proportion of An. albitarsis E was infected with Plasmodium vivax compared with An. darlingi, and the An. albitarsis E biting index was also much higher. These results suggest the importance of An. albitarsis E in malaria transmission in a savannah ecoregion of northern Amazonian Brazil, and reconfirm the importance of An. darlingi even if at lower abundance.