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      The association of problematic smartphone use with family well-being mediated by family communication in Chinese adults: A population-based study

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          Few studies have investigated the effects of problematic smartphone use (PSU) in the family context. We studied the association of PSU as a predictor with family well-being and the potential mediating role of family communication in Hong Kong Chinese adults.

          Methods

          We analyzed data of 5,063 randomly selected adults [mean age ( SD) = 48.1 (18.2) years; 45.0% men] from a dual landline and mobile telephone survey in 2017. PSU was assessed by the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version with higher scores indicating higher levels. Family well-being was assessed by three questions on perceived family health, harmony, and happiness (3Hs) with higher scores indicating greater well-being. Perceived sufficiency and quality of family communication were rated. Multivariable regression analyses examined (a) associations of PSU with family 3Hs and well-being and (b) mediating role of family communication, adjusting for sociodemographic variables.

          Results

          PSU was negatively associated with perceived family health (adjusted β = −0.008, 95% CI = −0.016, −0.0004), harmony (adjusted β = −0.009, 95% CI = −0.017, −0.002), happiness (adjusted β = −0.015, 95% CI = −0.022, −0.007), and well-being (adjusted β = −0.011, 95% CI = −0.018, −0.004). Perceived family communication sufficiency (adjusted β = −0.007, 95% CI = −0.010, −0.005) and quality (adjusted β = −0.009, 95% CI = −0.014, −0.005) mediated the association of PSU with family well-being, with 75% and 94% of total effects having mediated, respectively.

          Discussion and conclusions

          PSU was negatively associated with family well-being, which was partially mediated by family communication. Such findings provide insights for health programs to prevent PSU and improve family well-being.

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          Most cited references 51

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          The family APGAR: a proposal for a family function test and its use by physicians.

           G Smilkstein (1978)
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            Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Sytems

             David Olson (2000)
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              Is Open Access

              The Smartphone Addiction Scale: Development and Validation of a Short Version for Adolescents

              Objective This study was designed to investigate the revised and short version of the smartphone addiction scale and the proof of its validity in adolescents. In addition, it suggested cutting off the values by gender in order to determine smartphone addiction and elaborate the characteristics of smartphone usage in adolescents. Method A set of questionnaires were provided to a total of 540 selected participants from April to May of 2013. The participants consisted of 343 boys and 197 girls, and their average age was 14.5 years old. The content validity was performed on a selection of shortened items, while an internal-consistency test was conducted for the verification of its reliability. The concurrent validity was confirmed using SAS, SAPS and KS-scale. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was conducted to suggest cut-off. Results The 10 final questions were selected using content validity. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.911. The SAS-SV was significantly correlated with the SAS, SAPS and KS-scale. The SAS-SV scores of gender (p<.001) and self-evaluation of smartphone addiction (p<.001) showed significant difference. The ROC analysis results showed an area under a curve (AUC) value of 0.963(0.888–1.000), a cut-off value of 31, sensitivity value of 0.867 and specificity value of 0.893 in boys while an AUC value of 0.947(0.887–1.000), a cut-off value of 33, sensitivity value of 0.875, and a specificity value of 0.886 in girls. Conclusions The SAS-SV showed good reliability and validity for the assessment of smartphone addiction. The smartphone addiction scale short version, which was developed and validated in this study, could be used efficiently for the evaluation of smartphone addiction in community and research areas.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                9 August 2019
                September 2019
                : 8
                : 3
                : 412-419
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Nursing, University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, China
                [2 ]School of Public Health, University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Man Ping Wang; School of Nursing, The University of Hong Kong, 21 Sassoon Road, Hong Kong, China; Phone: +852 3917 6636; Fax: +852 2872 6079; E-mail: mpwang@ 123456hku.hk
                Article
                10.1556/2006.8.2019.39
                7044629
                31394912
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 51, Pages: 8
                Product
                Funding
                Funding sources: This work was supported by the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust as part of the project: “FAMILY: A Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society” ( https://www.family.org.hk/en).
                Categories
                Full-Length Report

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