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      Treatment of Pyonephritis Complicated by Septic Shock Using Extracorporeal Device Polymyxin B-Hemoperfusion

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          Abstract

          Direct hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber (PMX-DHP) is an established treatment method for septic shock caused by Gram-negative infections. We report one instance in which PMX-DHP therapy has been used successfully in a 33-year-old woman with septic shock from urosepsis. Although there is lack of recommendations in latest Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines, evidence of PMX-DHP efficacy in this subset of patients is growing.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Blood purification and mortality in sepsis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

          Although blood purification improves outcomes in animal studies of sepsis, results of clinical trials have been mixed. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials to determine the association between various blood purification techniques and all-cause mortality in humans with sepsis. We searched for relevant studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library database from January 1966 to May 2012. Inclusion required a diagnosis of sepsis and comparison of blood purification techniques including hemofiltration, hemoperfusion, plasma exchange, or hemodialysis with no blood purification (control group). Two authors independently selected studies and extracted data. Summary statistics, risk ratios, and CIs were calculated using random-effects modeling. Study quality was assessed using Jadad score, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's statistic. Overall, blood purification decreased mortality compared with no blood purification (35.7% vs 50.1%; risk ratio, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.56-0.84]; p<0.001; 16 trials, n=827). However, these results were driven mainly by hemoperfusion (risk ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.50-0.80]; p<0.001; 10 trials, n=557) and plasma exchange (risk ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.42-0.96]; p=0.03; two trials, n=128). Pooling of all trials of blood purification for treatment of sepsis was no longer associated with lower mortality (risk ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.71-1.13]; p=0.36; eight trials, n=457) after excluding trials using polymyxin B hemoperfusion. Blood purification techniques including hemoperfusion, plasma exchange, and hemofiltration with hemoperfusion were associated with lower mortality in patients with sepsis. These results were mainly influenced by studies using polymyxin B hemoperfusion from Japan.
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            Immunomodulation in Sepsis: The Role of Endotoxin Removal by Polymyxin B-Immobilized Cartridge

            Severe sepsis results in high morbidity and mortality. Immunomodulation strategies could be an adjunctive therapy to treat sepsis. Endotoxin is a component of gram-negative bacteria and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of septic shock when it is recognized by immune cells. Removal of endotoxin could be an effective adjunctive approach to the management of sepsis. Devices to adsorb endotoxin or inflammatory cytokines have been designed as a strategy to treat severe sepsis, especially sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Polymyxin B-immobilized cartridge has been successfully used to treat patients with sepsis of abdominal origin. Although this cartridge was conceived to adsorb endotoxin, several other immunological mechanisms have been elucidated, and this device has also yielded promising results in patients with nonseptic respiratory failure. In this paper, we summarize the immune modulation actions of Polymyxin B-immobilized cartridge to explore its potential usefulness beyond endotoxin elimination.
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              The effect of polymyxin B hemoperfusion on modulation of human leukocyte antigen DR in severe sepsis patients

              Background Recent randomized trials have not found that polymyxin B hemoperfusion (PMX-HP) improves outcomes for patients with sepsis. However, it remains unclear whether the therapy could provide benefit for highly selected patients. Monocyte human leukocyte antigen (mHLA-DR) expression, a critical step in the immune response, is decreased during sepsis and leads to worsening sepsis outcomes. One recent study found that PMX-HP increased mHLA-DR expression while another found that the treatment removed HLA-DR-positive cells. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in patients with blood endotoxin activity assay (EAA) level ≥ 0.6. Patients in the PMX-HP group received a 2-h PMX-HP treatment plus standard treatment for 2 consecutive days. Patients in the non-PMX-HP group received only standard treatment. The primary outcome compared the groups on median change in mHLA-DR expression between day 3 and baseline. Secondary outcomes compared the groups on the mean or median change in CD11b expression, neutrophil chemotaxis, presepsin, cardiovascular Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CVS SOFA) score, vasopressor dose, and EAA level between day 3 and baseline. We further compared the groups on mortality, ICU-free days, ventilator-free days, dialysis dependence status, renal recovery, serum creatinine, vasopressor-free days, and major adverse kidney events (MAKE 28), measured on day 28. Results Fifty-nine patients were randomized to PMX-HP (n = 29) and non-PMX-HP (n = 30) groups. At baseline, mHLA-DR expression, CD11b, neutrophil chemotaxis, and clinical parameters were comparable between groups. The median change in mHLA-DR expression between day 3 and baseline was higher in PMX-HP patients than in patients receiving standard therapy alone (P = 0.027). The mean change in CD11b between day 3 and baseline was significantly lower in the PMX-HP group than in the non-PMX-HP group (P = 0.002). There were no significant changes from baseline in neutrophil chemotaxis, presepsin, CVS SOFA scores, vasopressor doses, or EAA level between groups. On day 28 after enrollment, mortality, ICU-free days, ventilator-free days, dialysis dependence status, renal recovery, serum creatinine, vasopressor-free days, and MAKE 28 were comparable between groups. Conclusion PMX-HP improved mHLA-DR expression in severe sepsis patients. Future studies should examine the potential benefit of PMX-HP in patients with low mHLA-DR expression. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02413541. Registered on 3 March 2015.  Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13054-018-2077-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2020
                September 2020
                26 August 2020
                : 49
                : 5
                : 627-630
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, OORR Riuniti Hospital, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
                bDepartment of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Ospedale “L.Bonomo,”, Andria, Italy
                Author notes
                *Gabriele Amoruso, Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, OORR Riuniti Hospital, University of Foggia, Viale L. Pinto, 1, IT–71122 Foggia (Italy), gabriele.amoruso@gmail.com
                Article
                505611 Blood Purif 2020;49:627–630
                10.1159/000505611
                32846411
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Critical Care Nephrology – Case Report

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