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      Two Autocrine Pathways to Regulate Cyclic GMP Synthesis in Cultured Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells


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          Aim: To investigate the role of two separate enzymatic pathways [soluble (sGC) vs. particulate (pGC) guanylyl cyclase] in the synthesis of cyclic GMP (cGMP) in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Methods: cGMP accumulation was evaluated by quantitative analysis of cGMP immunoreactivity. RPE cells were also stained for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), ANP and β<sub>1</sub>- and α<sub>2</sub>-subunits of sGC. Results: We showed nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase activity and iNOS immunoreactivity in RPE cells. Incubation of the cells in the presence of 1 m M IBMX to inhibit phosphodiesterase activity, and the simultaneous inhibition of NOS activity with L-NAME suggested the involvement of sGC in maintaining a low level of cGMP in the RPE cells. The involvement of sGC was further supported by detection of the β<sub>1</sub>- and α<sub>2</sub>-subunits of sGC. Incubation of the cells in the presence of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to stimulate pGC strongly increased cGMP immunoreactivity. We also demonstrated the presence of ANP in all RPE cells. Conclusion: Cultured human RPE cells are capable of producing cGMP after stimulation of sGC or pGC. The presence of iNOS and ANP in all cells suggests two different autocrine pathways of stimulating cGMP production in these cells. The possible role of cGMP in the regulation iNOS gene expression and in the regulation of ANP is discussed.

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          Most cited references18

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          Neuronal NADPH diaphorase is a nitric oxide synthase.

          NADPH diaphorase histochemistry selectively labels a number of discrete populations of neurons throughout the nervous system. This simple and robust technique has been used in a great many experimental and neuropathological studies; however, the function of this enzyme has remained a matter of speculation. We, therefore, undertook to characterize this enzyme biochemically. With biochemical and immunochemical assays, NADPH diaphorase was purified to apparent homogeneity from rat brain by affinity chromatography and anion-exchange HPLC. Western (immunoblot) transfer and immunostaining with an antibody specific for NADPH diaphorase labeled a single protein of 150 kDa. Nitric oxide synthase was recently shown to be a 150-kDa, NADPH-dependent enzyme in brain. It is responsible for the calcium/calmodulin-dependent synthesis of the guanylyl cyclase activator nitric oxide from L-arginine. We have found that nitric oxide synthase activity and NADPH diaphorase copurify to homogeneity and that both activities could be immunoprecipitated with an antibody recognizing neuronal NADPH diaphorase. Furthermore, nitric oxide synthase was competitively inhibited by the NADPH diaphorase substrate, nitro blue tetrazolium. Thus, neuronal NADPH diaphorase is a nitric oxide synthase, and NADPH diaphorase histochemistry, therefore, provides a specific histochemical marker for neurons producing nitric oxide.
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            Regulation of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase.

            In this review, we outline the current knowledge on the regulation of nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC). Besides NO, the physiological activator that binds to the prosthetic heme group of the enzyme, two novel classes of GC activators have been identified that may have broad pharmacological implications. YC-1 and YC-1-like substances act as NO sensitizers, whereas the substance BAY 58-2667 stimulates NO-sensitive GC NO-independently and preferentially activates the heme-free form of the enzyme. Sensitization and desensitization of NO/cGMP signaling have been reported to occur on the level of NO-sensitive GC; in the present study, an alternative mechanism is introduced explaining the adaptation of the NO-induced cGMP response by a long-term activation of the cGMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). Finally, regulation of GC expression and a possible modulation of GC activity by other factors are discussed.
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              Autocrine regulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase in macrophages by atrial natriuretic peptide.

              Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a cardiovascular hormone, has been shown to inhibit synthesis of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages via activation of its guanylate cyclase-coupled receptor. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the potential sites of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) regulation affected by ANP and revealed the following. 1) ANP and dibutyryl-cGMP did not inhibit catalytic iNOS activity measured by the conversion rate of L-[3H]arginine to L-[3H]citrulline in homogenates of LPS-treated cells. 2) Pretreatment of cells with ANP dose-dependently reduced the LPS-induced L-[3H]citrulline production that has been shown to be due to reduced iNOS protein levels detected by Western blot. 3) ANP does not alter the ratio of catalytically active iNOS dimer versus inactive iNOS monomer considered to be a major post-translational regulatory mechanism for the enzyme. 4) Macrophages exposed to ANP display decreased LPS-induced iNOS mRNA levels. 5) Importantly, two basic mechanisms seem to be responsible for this observation, i.e. ANP specifically induced acceleration of iNOS mRNA decay and ANP reduced binding activity of NF-kappaB, the transcription factor predominantly responsible for LPS-induced iNOS expression in murine macrophages. Moreover, 6) ANP acts via an autocrine mechanism since recently ANP was shown to be secreted by LPS-activated macrophages, and we demonstrated here that LPS-induced NO synthesis was increased after blocking the binding of endogenous ANP by a receptor antagonist. These observations suggest ANP as a new autocrine macrophage factor regulating NO synthesis both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. ANP may help to balance NO production of activated macrophages and thus may allow successful immune response without adverse effects on host cells.

                Author and article information

                Ophthalmic Res
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                August 2008
                25 April 2008
                : 40
                : 5
                : 227-234
                aEye Research Institute Maastricht, Department of Ophthalmology, and bEuropean Graduate School of Neuroscience (EURON), Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
                127829 Ophthalmic Res 2008;40:227–234
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 16 November 2006
                : 04 July 2007
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 31, Pages: 8
                Original Paper

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Retinal pigment epithelial cells,Cyclic GMP,Natriuretic peptides,Guanylyl cyclases,Inducible nitric oxide synthetase


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