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      Accumulation of Bisphenol A in Hemodialysis Patients


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          Bisphenol A [BPA, 2,2-bis(4-hydoxyphenyl)propane], an industrial chemical used in the production of polycarbonate, epoxide resin, and polyarylate, is considered to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. BPA may be present in some hollow-fiber dialyzers used in hemodialysis. In this study, we tested the amounts of BPA eluted from various hollow fibers. Furthermore, we measured the BPA concentration in the sera of 22 renal disease predialysis patients, as well as 15 patients who were receiving hemodialysis, to see if there is BPA accumulation in these patients. The elution test of BPA showed that a much larger amount of BPA was eluted from polysulfone (PS), and polyester-polymeralloy hollow fibers. Among renal disease patients who had not undergone hemodialysis, the serum BPA concentration increased as the renal function deteriorated, showing a significant negative association. In a crossover test between PS and cellulose (Ce) dialyzers, the predialysis serum BPA concentration of PS dialyzer users decreased after changing to a Ce dialyzer, and the serum BPA increased again after switching back to PS dialyzers. In patients who were using PS dialyzers, the BPA level significantly increased after a dialysis session. However, in the Ce dialyzer users, the BPA level decreased. Since accumulation of BPA could affect the endocrine or metabolic system of the human body, it is important to perform further investigations on dialysis patients. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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          Parent bisphenol A accumulation in the human maternal-fetal-placental unit.

          Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products. The suggestion that BPA, at amounts to which we are exposed, alters the reproductive organs of developing rodents has caused concern. At present, no information exists concerning the exposure of human pregnant women and their fetuses to BPA. We therefore investigated blood samples from mothers (n = 37) between weeks 32 and 41 of gestation. Afer the births, we also analyzed placental tissue and umbilical cord blood from the same subjects. We developed a novel chemical derivatization-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method to analyze parent BPA at concentrations < 1 micro g/mL in plasma and tissues. Concentrations of BPA ranged from 0.3 to 18.9 ng/mL (median = 3.1 ng/mL) in maternal plasma, from 0.2 to 9.2 ng/mL (median = 2.3 ng/mL) in fetal plasma, and from 1.0 to 104.9 ng/g (median = 12.7 ng/g) in placental tissue. BPA blood concentrations were higher in male than in female fetuses. Here we demonstrate parent BPA in pregnant women and their fetuses. Exposure levels of parent BPA were found within a range typical of those used in recent animal studies and were shown to be toxic to reproductive organs of male and female offspring. We suggest that the range of BPA concentrations we measured may be related to sex differences in metabolization of parent BPA or variable maternal use of consumer products leaching BPA.
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            Inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis by the xenoestrogen bisphenol A is associated with reduced pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion and decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in rat Leydig cells.

            Exposure of humans to bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer in polycarbonate plastics and a constituent of resins used in food packaging and dentistry, is significant. In this report exposure of rats to 2.4 microg/kg.d (a dose that approximates BPA levels in the environment) from postnatal d 21-35 suppressed serum LH (0.21 +/- 0.05 ng/ml; vs. control, 0.52 +/- 0.04; P < 0.01) and testosterone (T) levels (1.62 +/- 0.16 ng/ml; vs. control, 2.52 +/- 0.21; P < 0.05), in association with decreased LHbeta and increased estrogen receptor beta pituitary mRNA levels as measured by RT-PCR. Treatment of adult Leydig cells with 0.01 nm BPA decreased T biosynthesis by 25% as a result of decreased expression of the steroidogenic enzyme 17alpha-hydroxylase/17-20 lyase. BPA decreased serum 17beta-estradiol levels from 0.31 +/- 0.02 ng/ml (control) to 0.22 +/- 0.02, 0.19 +/- 0.02, and 0.23 +/- 0.03 ng/ml in rats exposed to 2.4 microg, 10 microg, or 100 mg/kg.d BPA, respectively, from 21-35 d of age (P < 0.05) due to its ability to inhibit Leydig cell aromatase activity. Exposures of pregnant and nursing dams, i.e. from gestation d 12 to postnatal d 21, decreased T levels in the testicular interstitial fluid from 420 +/- 34 (control) to 261 +/- 22 (P < 0.05) ng/ml in adulthood, implying that the perinatal period is a sensitive window of exposure to BPA. As BPA has been measured in several human populations, further studies are warranted to assess the effects of BPA on male fertility.
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              The relative bioavailability and metabolism of bisphenol A in rats is dependent upon the route of administration.

              Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to produce polymers for food contact applications, thus there is potential for oral exposure of humans to trace amounts via the diet. BPA was weakly estrogenic in screening assays measuring uterine weight/response, although much higher oral doses of BPA were required to elicit a uterotropic response as compared to other routes of administration. The objective of this study was to determine if a route dependency exists in the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of 14C-labeled BPA following single oral (po), intraperitoneal (ip), or subcutaneous (sc) doses of either 10 or 100 mg/kg to Fischer 344 rats. Results indicated a marked route dependency in the pharmacokinetics of BPA. The relative bioavailability of BPA and plasma radioactivity was markedly lower following oral administration as compared to sc or ip administration. The major fraction of plasma radioactivity following oral dosing was the monoglucuronide conjugate of BPA (68-100% of plasma radioactivity). BPA was the major component in plasma at Cmax following sc or ip administration exceeded only by BPA-monoglucuronide in females dosed ip. Up to four additional unidentified metabolites were present only in the plasma of animals dosed ip or sc. One of these, found only following ip administration, was tentatively identified as the monosulfate conjugate of BPA. The monoglucuronide conjugate was the major urinary metabolite; unchanged BPA was the principal component excreted in feces. These results demonstrated a route dependency of BPA bioavailability in rats, with oral administration resulting in the lowest bioavailability, and offer an explanation for the apparent route differences in estrogenic potency observed for BPA.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                July 2007
                02 July 2007
                : 25
                : 3
                : 290-294
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, and bDepartment of Clinical Biochemistry, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan
                104869 Blood Purif 2007;25:290–294
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                : 16 August 2006
                : 11 April 2007
                Page count
                Pages: 5
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Bisphenol A,Endocrine disrupter,Hemodialysis
                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology
                Bisphenol A, Endocrine disrupter, Hemodialysis


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