Background/Aims: Intimal hyperplasia at the venous anastomosis of arteriovenous dialysis grafts (AVGs) is a common and costly complication in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Previous studies have shown significant accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) within the lesions, suggesting a pathogenic role for these compounds in this condition. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 139 HD patients, including 58 subjects with AVGs, to determine any relationship between serum AGEs and other circulating markers, e.g. C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor, with the presence of graft thrombosis, an index of venous intimal hyperplasia. Results: Patients with previously thrombosed AVGs exhibited significantly higher levels of serum AGEs (42 ± 18 vs. 28± 8 U/ml), CRP (1.4 ± 1.1 vs. 0.6 ± 0.4 mg/dl) and VCAM-1 (3,172 ± 696 vs. 2,447 ± 1,101 ng/ml) than those with uncomplicated AVGs, variances that were mostly attributed to diabetes difference. There was no difference regarding the levels of the parameters studied between patients with AVGs and other forms of vascular access. Conclusions: These results support an association between circulating AGEs, markers of inflammation and endothelial function and intimal hyperplasia at the venous anastomosis of AVGs in HD patients. The implication is that there may be a therapeutic role for anti-AGE interventions in the management of this common clinical condition.