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      GE11-modified liposomes for non-small cell lung cancer targeting: preparation, ex vitro and in vivo evaluation

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          Abstract

          Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a serious threat to human health, and 40%–80% of NSCLCs express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). GE11 is a novel peptide and exhibits high affinity for EGFR binding. The aim of this study was to construct and evaluate GE11-modified liposomes for targeted drug delivery to EGFR-positive NSCLC. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum antitumor agent, was chosen as the payload. GE11 was conjugated to the distal end of DSPE-PEG 2000-Mal by an addition reaction with a conjugation efficiency above 90%. Doxorubicin-loaded liposomes containing GE11 (GE11-LP/DOX) at densities ranging from 0% to 15% were prepared by combination of a thin film hydration method and a post insertion method. Irrespective of GE11 density, the physicochemical properties of these targeted liposomes, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug entrapment efficiency, were nearly identical. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of the liposomes on A549 tumor cells was closely related to GE11 density, and liposomes with 10% GE11 had the highest tumor cell killing activity and a 2.6-fold lower half maximal inhibitory concentration than that of the nontargeted counterpart (PEG-LP/DOX). Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis revealed that GE11 significantly increased cellular uptake of the liposomes, which could be ascribed to specific EGFR-mediated endocytosis. It was found that multiple endocytic pathways were involved in entry of GE11-LP/DOX into cells, but GE11 assisted in cellular internalization mainly via the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Importantly, the GE11-modified liposomes showed enhanced accumulation and prolonged retention in tumor tissue, as evidenced by a 2.2-fold stronger mean fluorescence intensity in tumor tissue than the unmodified liposomes at 24 hours. In summary, GE11-modified liposomes may be a promising platform for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in NSCLC.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Stealth liposomes: review of the basic science, rationale, and clinical applications, existing and potential

          Among several promising new drug-delivery systems, liposomes represent an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles (“first-generation liposomes”) to “second-generation liposomes”, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. A significant step in the development of long-circulating liposomes came with inclusion of the synthetic polymer poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in liposome composition. The presence of PEG on the surface of the liposomal carrier has been shown to extend blood-circulation time while reducing mononuclear phagocyte system uptake (stealth liposomes). This technology has resulted in a large number of liposome formulations encapsulating active molecules, with high target efficiency and activity. Further, by synthetic modification of the terminal PEG molecule, stealth liposomes can be actively targeted with monoclonal antibodies or ligands. This review focuses on stealth technology and summarizes pre-clinical and clinical data relating to the principal liposome formulations; it also discusses emerging trends of this promising technology.
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            Virus entry by macropinocytosis.

            As obligatory intracellular parasites, viruses rely on host-cell functions for most aspects of their replication cycle. This is born out during entry, when most viruses that infect vertebrate and insect cells exploit the endocytic activities of the host cell to move into the cytoplasm. Viruses belonging to vaccinia, adeno, picorna and other virus families have been reported to take advantage of macropinocytosis, an endocytic mechanism normally involved in fluid uptake. The virus particles first activate signalling pathways that trigger actin-mediated membrane ruffling and blebbing. Usually, this is followed by the formation of large vacuoles (macropinosomes) at the plasma membrane, internalization of virus particles and penetration by the viruses or their capsids into the cytosol through the limiting membrane of the macropinosomes. We review the molecular machinery involved in macropinocytosis and describe what is known about its role in virus entry.
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              RGD-based strategies for selective delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents to the tumour vasculature.

              During the past decade, RGD-peptides have become a popular tool for the targeting of drugs and imaging agents to alphavbeta3-integrin expressing tumour vasculature. RGD-peptides have been introduced by recombinant means into therapeutic proteins and viruses. Chemical means have been applied to couple RGD-peptides and RGD-mimetics to liposomes, polymers, peptides, small molecule drugs and radiotracers. Some of these products show impressive results in preclinical animal models and a RGD targeted radiotracer has already successfully been tested in humans for the visualization of alphavbeta3-integrin, which demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. This review will summarize the structural requirements for RGD-peptides and RGD-mimetics as ligands for alphavbeta3. We will show how they have been introduced in the various types of constructs by chemical and recombinant techniques. The importance of multivalent RGD-constructs for high affinity binding and internalization will be highlighted. Furthermore the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of RGD-targeted therapeutics and diagnostics reported in recent years will be reviewed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9114
                1178-2013
                2014
                12 February 2014
                : 9
                : 921-935
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, Central Hospital of Zaozhuang Minging Group, Zaozhuang, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Da-Wei Chen, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, 199 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou 215123, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 512 6588 4729, Fax +86 24 2398 6250, Email chendawei@ 123456syphu.edu.cn
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                ijn-9-921
                10.2147/IJN.S53310
                3928463
                © 2014 Cheng et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

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