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      Nacimiento por cesárea y pronóstico neonatal Translated title: Cesarean delivery and neonatal outcome

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          Abstract

          La incidencia de nacimientos por cesárea ha aumentado progresivamente en las últimas décadas. Es probable que esta tendencia continúe en los próximos años. Un componente especial de este incremento está dado por la práctica de cesáreas sin indicación médica o por petición materna directa. La cesárea, aun electiva y hecha en embarazos a término, implica mayores riesgos para la madre y el niño, y no debe ser ofrecida como una vía de nacimiento más segura que el parto vaginal. La morbilidad neonatal más importante asociada a la cesárea, y de frecuencia inversamente relacionada a la edad gestacional, está dada por las complicaciones respiratorias, con una severidad variable que va desde procesos benignos de taquipnea transitoria a casos graves de insuficiencia respiratoria hipóxica y muerte. Hay evidencias consistentes de que la prevención de cesáreas electivas antes de las 39 semanas puede reducir los riesgos neonatales relacionados con esta vía de nacimiento.

          Translated abstract

          The incidence of cesarean births without medical or obstetric indication is increasing worldwide. This trend is likely to continue. A component of this increase is cesarean delivery on maternal request. Elective cesarean birth, even if performed at term, represents an obstetrical and neonatal hazard. Evidence indicates that respiratory morbidity, ranging from transient tachypnea to hypoxic respiratory failure and death, is higher for cesarean deliveries than for vaginal births. That risk is inversely related to gestational age. Elective cesarean delivery should not be performed prior to 39 weeks of gestation in order to minimize neonatal risks.

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          Caesarean section without medical indications is associated with an increased risk of adverse short-term maternal outcomes: the 2004-2008 WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health

          Background There is worldwide debate about the appropriateness of caesarean sections performed without medical indications. In this analysis, we aim to further investigate the relationship between caesarean section without medical indication and severe maternal outcomes. Methods This is a multicountry, facility-based survey that used a stratified multistage cluster sampling design to obtain a sample of countries and health institutions worldwide. A total of 24 countries and 373 health facilities participated in this study. Data collection took place during 2004 and 2005 in Africa and the Americas and during 2007 and 2008 in Asia. All women giving birth at the facility during the study period were included and had their medical records reviewed before discharge from the hospital. Univariate and multilevel analysis were performed to study the association between each group's mode of delivery and the severe maternal and perinatal outcome. Results A total of 286,565 deliveries were analysed. The overall caesarean section rate was 25.7% and a total of 1.0 percent of all deliveries were caesarean sections without medical indications, either due to maternal request or in the absence of other recorded indications. Compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, all other modes of delivery presented an association with the increased risk of death, admission to ICU, blood transfusion and hysterectomy, including antepartum caesarean section without medical indications (Adjusted Odds Ratio (Adj OR), 5.93, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI), 3.88 to 9.05) and intrapartum caesarean section without medical indications (Adj OR, 14.29, 95% CI, 10.91 to 18.72). In addition, this association is stronger in Africa, compared to Asia and Latin America. Conclusions Caesarean sections were associated with an intrinsic risk of increased severe maternal outcomes. We conclude that caesarean sections should be performed when a clear benefit is anticipated, a benefit that might compensate for the higher costs and additional risks associated with this operation.
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            Maternal and neonatal individual risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery: multicentre prospective study.

            To assess the risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. Prospective cohort study within the 2005 WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health. 410 health facilities in 24 areas in eight randomly selected Latin American countries; 123 were randomly selected and 120 participated and provided data 106,546 deliveries reported during the three month study period, with data available for 97,095 (91% coverage). Maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with intrapartum or elective caesarean delivery, adjusted for clinical, demographic, pregnancy, and institutional characteristics. Women undergoing caesarean delivery had an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity compared with women undergoing vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 2.5) for intrapartum caesarean and 2.3 (1.7 to 3.1) for elective caesarean). The risk of antibiotic treatment after delivery for women having either type of caesarean was five times that of women having vaginal deliveries. With cephalic presentation, there was a trend towards a reduced odds ratio for fetal death with elective caesarean, after adjustment for possible confounding variables and gestational age (0.7, 0.4 to 1.0). With breech presentation, caesarean delivery had a large protective effect for fetal death. With cephalic presentation, however, independent of possible confounding variables and gestational age, intrapartum and elective caesarean increased the risk for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care (2.1 (1.8 to 2.6) and 1.9 (1.6 to 2.3), respectively) and the risk of neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge (1.7 (1.3 to 2.2) and 1.9 (1.5 to 2.6), respectively), which remained higher even after exclusion of all caesarean deliveries for fetal distress. Such increased risk was not seen for breech presentation. Lack of labour was a risk factor for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care and neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge for babies delivered by elective caesarean delivery, but rupturing of membranes may be protective. Caesarean delivery independently reduces overall risk in breech presentations and risk of intrapartum fetal death in cephalic presentations but increases the risk of severe maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in cephalic presentations.
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              Timing of elective repeat cesarean delivery at term and neonatal outcomes.

              Because of increased rates of respiratory complications, elective cesarean delivery is discouraged before 39 weeks of gestation unless there is evidence of fetal lung maturity. We assessed associations between elective cesarean delivery at term (37 weeks of gestation or longer) but before 39 weeks of gestation and neonatal outcomes. We studied a cohort of consecutive patients undergoing repeat cesarean sections performed at 19 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network from 1999 through 2002. Women with viable singleton pregnancies delivered electively (i.e., before the onset of labor and without any recognized indications for delivery before 39 weeks of gestation) were included. The primary outcome was the composite of neonatal death and any of several adverse events, including respiratory complications, treated hypoglycemia, newborn sepsis, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (ICU). Of 24,077 repeat cesarean deliveries at term, 13,258 were performed electively; of these, 35.8% were performed before 39 completed weeks of gestation (6.3% at 37 weeks and 29.5% at 38 weeks) and 49.1% at 39 weeks of gestation. One neonatal death occurred. As compared with births at 39 weeks, births at 37 weeks and at 38 weeks were associated with an increased risk of the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio for births at 37 weeks, 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 2.5; adjusted odds ratio for births at 38 weeks, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3 to 1.7; P for trend <0.001). The rates of adverse respiratory outcomes, mechanical ventilation, newborn sepsis, hypoglycemia, admission to the neonatal ICU, and hospitalization for 5 days or more were increased by a factor of 1.8 to 4.2 for births at 37 weeks and 1.3 to 2.1 for births at 38 weeks. Elective repeat cesarean delivery before 39 weeks of gestation is common and is associated with respiratory and other adverse neonatal outcomes. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Journal
                avpp
                Archivos Venezolanos de Puericultura y Pediatría
                Arch Venez Puer Ped
                Sociedad Venezolana de Puericultura y Pediatría (Caracas )
                0004-0649
                June 2014
                : 77
                : 2
                : 79-86
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Nacional Experimental Francisco de Miranda Venezuela
                Article
                S0004-06492014000200006
                e0d7faf7-0341-417e-8036-8185ca43b5d1

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0649&lng=en
                Categories
                HEALTH CARE SCIENCES & SERVICES
                HEALTH POLICY & SERVICES
                PEDIATRICS

                Pediatrics,Health & Social care,Public health
                cesarean section,cesárea,neonato,newborn
                Pediatrics, Health & Social care, Public health
                cesarean section, cesárea, neonato, newborn

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