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      Body composition of male and female Chilean powerlifters of varying body mass

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          Abstract

          Abstract Aim: To examine body composition of Chilean powerlifters according to body mass and sex. Methods: Fifty-six male and female powerlifters were recruited from one national competition. Aside from the official weight categories, males were classified as the lightweight, middleweight, and heavyweight classes. Similarly, females were classified as lightweight and middle-heavyweight classes. Nineteen anthropometric measures were assessed, with lean mass as the main outcome. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Results: Male lightweight class lifted less (p<0.01) total load (417±30.9 kg) compared to heavier male classes (524±66.7 kg, middleweight; 581±131 kg, heavyweight), and female classes lifted less (p<0.01) total load (221±33.8 kg, lightweight; 254±48.3 kg, middleweight-heavyweight) compared to all male classes. Regarding lean-mass in trunk, arms and legs, total body protein, water, and mineral mass, all male groups had greater (p<0.01) values than the groups of females, while lightweight males had lower (p<0.01) values than the rest of male groups, and heavyweight males had greater (p<0.01) values than the total sample of males (except for legs lean mass, and total bone mineral content). In females, no significant differences were observed between classes, or in total load lifted or in body composition. Conclusion: Heavier male lifters had significantly greater lean mass than lighter athletes. Therefore, powerlifting performance was affected by anthropometric measures, as corroborated by 1-RM scores. However, there was a general lack of differences in body composition between female weight classes, and, as a result, a lack of differences in 1RM performance.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Utility of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance compared with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for assessment of total and regional body composition varies between men and women.

          Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition may be an appropriate alternative to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We hypothesized that there would be no significant differences between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and either the Biospace (Los Angeles, CA, USA) InBody 520 or 720 multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis devices for total lean body mass (LBM), appendicular lean mass (ALM), trunk lean mass (TM), and total fat mass (FM) in 25 men and 25 women (including lean, healthy, and obese individuals according to body mass index), age 18 to 49 years, weight of 73.6 ± 15.4 kg. Both devices overestimated LBM in women (~2.5 kg, P < .001) and underestimated ALM in men (~3.0 kg, P < .05) and women (~1.0 kg, P < .05). The 720 overestimated FM in men (1.6 kg, P < .05) and underestimated TM in women (0.6 kg, P ≤ .05). Regression analyses in men revealed R² (0.87-0.91), standard error of the estimate (SEE; 2.3-2.8 kg), and limits of agreement (LOAs; 4.5-5.7 kg) for LBM; R(2) (0.62-0.87), SEE (1.5-2.6 kg), and LOA (3.2-6.0 kg) for ALM; R² (0.52-0.71), SEE (2.4-3.0 kg), and LOA (4.6-6.1 kg) for TM; and R(2) (0.87-0.93), SEE (1.9-2.6 kg), and LOA (5.9-6.2 kg) for FM. Regression analyses in women revealed R² (0.87-0.88), SEE (1.8-1.9 kg), and LOA (4.1-4.2 kg) for LBM; R² (0.78-0.79), SEE (1.4-1.5 kg), and LOA (2.7-2.9 kg) for ALM; R² (0.76-0.77), SEE (1.0 kg), and LOA (2.2-2.3 kg) for TM; and R² (0.95), SEE (2.2 kg), and LOA (4.3-4.4 kg) for FM. The InBody 520 and 720 are valid estimators of LBM and FM in men and of LBM, ALM, and FM in women; the 720 and 520 are valid estimators of TM in men and women, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Lean body mass-body fat interrelationships in humans.

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              The role of FFM accumulation and skeletal muscle architecture in powerlifting performance.

              The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and architectural characteristics of skeletal muscle in elite powerlifters, and to investigate their relationship to fat-free mat (FFM) accumulation and powerlifting performance. Twenty elite male powerlifters (including four world and three US national champions) volunteered for this study. FFM, skeletal muscle distribution (muscle thickness at 13 anatomical sites), and isolated muscle thickness and fascicle pennation angle (PAN) of the triceps long-head (TL), vastus lateralis, and gastrocnemius medialis (MG) muscles were measured with B-mode ultrasound. Fascicle length (FAL) was calculated. Best lifting performance in the bench press (BP), squat lift (SQT), and dead lift (DL) was recorded from competition performance. Significant correlations (P < or = 0.01) were observed between muscle distribution (individual muscle thickness from 13 sites) and performance of the SQT (r = 0.79 to r = 0.91), BP (r = 0.63 to r = 0.85) and DL (r = 0.70 to r = 0.90). Subscapular muscle thickness was the single best predictor of powerlifting performance in each lift. Performance of the SQT, BP, and DL was strongly correlated with FFM and FFM relative to standing height (r = 0.86 to 0.95, P < or = 0.001). FAL of the triceps long head and vastus lateralis were significantly correlated with FFM (r = 0.59, P < or = 0.01; 0.63, P < or = 0.01, respectively) and performance of the SQT (r = 0.45; r = 0.50, respectively; P < or = 0.05), BP (r = 0.52; r = 0.56, respectively; P < or = 0.05), and DL (r = 0.56; r = 0.54, respectively; P < or = 0.01). A significant positive correlation was observed between isolated muscle thickness and PAN for triceps long-head (r = 0.64, P < or = 0.01) and gastrocnemius medialis (r = 0.48, P < or = 0.05) muscles, but not for vastus lateralis (r = 0.35). PAN was negatively correlated with powerlifting performance. Our results indicate that powerlifting performance is a function of FFM and, therefore, may be limited by the ability to accumulate FFM. Additionally, muscle architecture appears to play an important role in powerlifting performance in that greater fascicle lengths are associated with greater FFM accumulation and powerlifting performance.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                motriz
                Motriz: Revista de Educação Física
                Motriz: rev. educ. fis.
                Universidade Estadual Paulista (Rio Claro, SP, Brazil )
                1980-6574
                2019
                : 25
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Auckland orgnameAUT University orgdiv1Sports Performance Research Centre New Zealand New Zealand
                Gold Coast Queensland orgnameBond University orgdiv1Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Australia
                Osorno Los Lagos orgnameUniversidad de Los Lagos orgdiv1Departamento de Ciencias de la Actividad Física orgdiv2Laboratorio de Rendimiento Humano. Área Prioritaria de Investigación en Bienestar Humano y Calidad de Vida Chile
                Manipal Karnataka orgnameKasturba Medical College orgdiv1Manipal Academy of Higher Education India
                Article
                S1980-65742019000100716
                10.1590/s1980-6574201900010018

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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