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      Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD): executive summary from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference

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          Abstract

          Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects up to 12 million individuals and is the fourth most common cause for renal replacement therapy worldwide. There have been many recent advances in the understanding of its molecular genetics and biology, and in the diagnosis and management of its manifestations. Yet, diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment vary widely and there are no broadly accepted practice guidelines. Barriers to translation of basic science breakthroughs to clinical care exist, with considerable heterogeneity across countries. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Controversies Conference on ADPKD brought together a panel of multidisciplinary clinical expertise and engaged patients to identify areas of consensus, gaps in knowledge, and research and health-care priorities related to diagnosis; monitoring of kidney disease progression; management of hypertension, renal function decline and complications; end-stage renal disease; extrarenal complications; and practical integrated patient support. These are summarized in this review.

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          Most cited references131

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          Comparison of mortality in all patients on dialysis, patients on dialysis awaiting transplantation, and recipients of a first cadaveric transplant.

          The extent to which renal allotransplantation - as compared with long-term dialysis - improves survival among patients with end-stage renal disease is controversial, because those selected for transplantation may have a lower base-line risk of death. In an attempt to distinguish the effects of patient selection from those of transplantation itself, we conducted a longitudinal study of mortality in 228,552 patients who were receiving long-term dialysis for end-stage renal disease. Of these patients, 46,164 were placed on a waiting list for transplantation, 23,275 of whom received a first cadaveric transplant between 1991 and 1997. The relative risk of death and survival were assessed with time-dependent nonproportional-hazards analysis, with adjustment for age, race, sex, cause of end-stage renal disease, geographic region, time from first treatment for end-stage renal disease to placement on the waiting list, and year of initial placement on the list. Among the various subgroups, the standardized mortality ratio for the patients on dialysis who were awaiting transplantation (annual death rate, 6.3 per 100 patient-years) was 38 to 58 percent lower than that for all patients on dialysis (annual death rate, 16.1 per 100 patient-years). The relative risk of death during the first 2 weeks after transplantation was 2.8 times as high as that for patients on dialysis who had equal lengths of follow-up since placement on the waiting list, but at 18 months the risk was much lower (relative risk, 0.32; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.35; P<0.001). The likelihood of survival became equal in the two groups within 5 to 673 days after transplantation in all the subgroups of patients we examined. The long-term mortality rate was 48 to 82 percent lower among transplant recipients (annual death rate, 3.8 per 100 patient-years) than patients on the waiting list, with relatively larger benefits among patients who were 20 to 39 years old, white patients, and younger patients with diabetes. Among patients with end-stage renal disease, healthier patients are placed on the waiting list for transplantation, and long-term survival is better among those on the waiting list who eventually undergo transplantation.
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            Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

            Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most prevalent, potentially lethal, monogenic disorder. It is associated with large interfamilial and intrafamilial variability, which can be explained to a large extent by its genetic heterogeneity and modifier genes. An increased understanding of the disorder's underlying genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms and a better appreciation of its progression and systemic manifestations have laid out the foundation for the development of clinical trials and potentially effective treatments.
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              The Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Kidney International
                Kidney International
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                00852538
                July 2015
                July 2015
                : 88
                : 1
                : 17-27
                Article
                10.1038/ki.2015.59
                25786098
                e0da0282-5c6a-42c0-9ece-5242ce942794
                © 2015

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://www.elsevier.com/open-access/userlicense/1.0/

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