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      A Drosophila RNAi screen reveals conserved glioblastoma-related adhesion genes that regulate collective cell migration

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          Abstract

          Migrating cell collectives are key to embryonic development but also contribute to invasion and metastasis of a variety of cancers. Cell collectives can invade deep into tissues, leading to tumor progression and resistance to therapies. Collective cell invasion is also observed in the lethal brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM), which infiltrates the surrounding brain parenchyma leading to tumor growth and poor patient outcomes. Drosophila border cells, which migrate as a small cell cluster in the developing ovary, are a well-studied and genetically accessible model used to identify general mechanisms that control collective cell migration within native tissue environments. Most cell collectives remain cohesive through a variety of cell–cell adhesion proteins during their migration through tissues and organs. In this study, we first identified cell adhesion, cell matrix, cell junction, and associated regulatory genes that are expressed in human brain tumors. We performed RNAi knockdown of the Drosophila orthologs in border cells to evaluate if migration and/or cohesion of the cluster was impaired. From this screen, we identified eight adhesion-related genes that disrupted border cell collective migration upon RNAi knockdown. Bioinformatics analyses further demonstrated that subsets of the orthologous genes were elevated in the margin and invasive edge of human GBM patient tumors. These data together show that conserved cell adhesion and adhesion regulatory proteins with potential roles in tumor invasion also modulate collective cell migration. This dual screening approach for adhesion genes linked to GBM and border cell migration thus may reveal conserved mechanisms that drive collective tumor cell invasion.

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          GEPIA: a web server for cancer and normal gene expression profiling and interactive analyses

          Abstract Tremendous amount of RNA sequencing data have been produced by large consortium projects such as TCGA and GTEx, creating new opportunities for data mining and deeper understanding of gene functions. While certain existing web servers are valuable and widely used, many expression analysis functions needed by experimental biologists are still not adequately addressed by these tools. We introduce GEPIA (Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis), a web-based tool to deliver fast and customizable functionalities based on TCGA and GTEx data. GEPIA provides key interactive and customizable functions including differential expression analysis, profiling plotting, correlation analysis, patient survival analysis, similar gene detection and dimensionality reduction analysis. The comprehensive expression analyses with simple clicking through GEPIA greatly facilitate data mining in wide research areas, scientific discussion and the therapeutic discovery process. GEPIA fills in the gap between cancer genomics big data and the delivery of integrated information to end users, thus helping unleash the value of the current data resources. GEPIA is available at http://gepia.cancer-pku.cn/.
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            A restricted cell population propagates glioblastoma growth following chemotherapy

            Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor, with a median survival of about one year 1 . This poor prognosis is due to therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence following surgical removal. Precisely how recurrence occurs is unknown. Using a genetically-engineered mouse model of glioma, we identify a subset of endogenous tumor cells that are the source of new tumor cells after the drug, temozolomide (TMZ), is administered to transiently arrest tumor growth. A Nestin-ΔTK-IRES-GFP (Nes-ΔTK-GFP) transgene that labels quiescent subventricular zone adult neural stem cells also labels a subset of endogenous glioma tumor cells. Upon arrest of tumor cell proliferation with TMZ, pulse-chase experiments demonstrate a tumor re-growth cell hierarchy originating with the Nes-ΔTK-GFP transgene subpopulation. Ablation of the GFP+ cells with chronic ganciclovir administration significantly arrested tumor growth and combined TMZ-ganciclovir treatment impeded tumor development. These data indicate the existence of a relatively quiescent subset of endogenous glioma cells that are responsible for sustaining long-term tumor growth through the production of transient populations of highly proliferative cells.
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              Glioma stem cells promote radioresistance by preferential activation of the DNA damage response.

              Ionizing radiation represents the most effective therapy for glioblastoma (World Health Organization grade IV glioma), one of the most lethal human malignancies, but radiotherapy remains only palliative because of radioresistance. The mechanisms underlying tumour radioresistance have remained elusive. Here we show that cancer stem cells contribute to glioma radioresistance through preferential activation of the DNA damage checkpoint response and an increase in DNA repair capacity. The fraction of tumour cells expressing CD133 (Prominin-1), a marker for both neural stem cells and brain cancer stem cells, is enriched after radiation in gliomas. In both cell culture and the brains of immunocompromised mice, CD133-expressing glioma cells survive ionizing radiation in increased proportions relative to most tumour cells, which lack CD133. CD133-expressing tumour cells isolated from both human glioma xenografts and primary patient glioblastoma specimens preferentially activate the DNA damage checkpoint in response to radiation, and repair radiation-induced DNA damage more effectively than CD133-negative tumour cells. In addition, the radioresistance of CD133-positive glioma stem cells can be reversed with a specific inhibitor of the Chk1 and Chk2 checkpoint kinases. Our results suggest that CD133-positive tumour cells represent the cellular population that confers glioma radioresistance and could be the source of tumour recurrence after radiation. Targeting DNA damage checkpoint response in cancer stem cells may overcome this radioresistance and provide a therapeutic model for malignant brain cancers.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                G3 (Bethesda)
                Genetics
                g3journal
                G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics
                Oxford University Press
                2160-1836
                January 2022
                11 October 2021
                11 October 2021
                : 12
                : 1
                : jkab356
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Division of Biology, Kansas State University , Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
                [2 ] Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Sciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic , Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: 116 Ackert Hall, 1717 Claflin Road, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. Email: jmcdona@ 123456ksu.edu
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7494-1466
                Article
                jkab356
                10.1093/g3journal/jkab356
                8728034
                34849760
                e0dae9d8-5d2a-4eac-93a2-cc0972eee392
                © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Genetics Society of America.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 06 August 2021
                : 06 October 2021
                : 26 November 2021
                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institutes of Health, DOI 10.13039/100000002;
                Award ID: R21 CA198254
                Funded by: Johnson Cancer Research Center at Kansas State University;
                Funded by: Graduate Student Summer Stipend Award;
                Categories
                Mutant Screen Report
                AcademicSubjects/SCI01180
                AcademicSubjects/SCI01140
                AcademicSubjects/SCI00010
                AcademicSubjects/SCI00960

                Genetics
                drosophila,cell adhesion,collective migration,glioblastoma,α-catenin,symplekin,lachesin,roughest,dreadlocks,wnt4,dachsous,fat

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