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      Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in child vaccination in Ethiopia: results from the 2011 and 2016 demographic and health surveys


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          Monitoring and addressing unnecessary and avoidable differences in child vaccination is a critical global concern. This study aimed to assess socioeconomic inequalities in basic vaccination coverage among children aged 12–23 months in Ethiopia.

          Design, setting and participants

          Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from the two most recent (2011 and 2016) Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys were performed. This analysis included 1930 mother–child pairs in 2011 and 2004 mother–child pairs in 2016.

          Outcome measures

          Completion of basic vaccinations was defined based on whether a child received a single dose of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), three doses of diphtheria, tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTP), three doses of oral polio vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine.


          The concentration Curve and Concentration Indices (CCIs) were used to estimate wealth related to inequalities. The concentration indices were also decomposed to examine the contributing factors to socioeconomic inequalities in childhood vaccination.


          From 2011 to 2016, the proportion of children who received basic vaccination increased from 24.6% (95% CI 21.4% to 28.0%) to 38.6% (95% CI 34.6% to 42.9%). While coverage of BCG, DTP and polio immunisation increased during the study period, the uptake of measles vaccine decreased. The positive concentration index shows that basic vaccination coverage was pro-rich (CCI=0.212 in 2011 and CCI=0.172 in 2016). The decomposition analysis shows that use of maternal health services such as family planning and antenatal care, socioeconomic status, exposure to media, urban–rural residence and maternal education explain inequalities in basic vaccination coverage in Ethiopia.


          Childhood vaccination coverage was low in Ethiopia. Vaccination was less likely in poorer than in richer households. Addressing wealth inequalities, enhancing education and improving maternal health service coverage will reduce socioeconomic inequalities in basic vaccination uptake in Ethiopia.

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          Most cited references33

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          From millennium development goals to sustainable development goals.

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            Can available interventions end preventable deaths in mothers, newborn babies, and stillbirths, and at what cost?

            Progress in newborn survival has been slow, and even more so for reductions in stillbirths. To meet Every Newborn targets of ten or fewer neonatal deaths and ten or fewer stillbirths per 1000 births in every country by 2035 will necessitate accelerated scale-up of the most effective care targeting major causes of newborn deaths. We have systematically reviewed interventions across the continuum of care and various delivery platforms, and then modelled the effect and cost of scale-up in the 75 high-burden Countdown countries. Closure of the quality gap through the provision of effective care for all women and newborn babies delivering in facilities could prevent an estimated 113,000 maternal deaths, 531,000 stillbirths, and 1·325 million neonatal deaths annually by 2020 at an estimated running cost of US$4·5 billion per year (US$0·9 per person). Increased coverage and quality of preconception, antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal interventions by 2025 could avert 71% of neonatal deaths (1·9 million [range 1·6-2·1 million]), 33% of stillbirths (0·82 million [0·60-0·93 million]), and 54% of maternal deaths (0·16 million [0·14-0·17 million]) per year. These reductions can be achieved at an annual incremental running cost of US$5·65 billion (US$1·15 per person), which amounts to US$1928 for each life saved, including stillbirths, neonatal, and maternal deaths. Most (82%) of this effect is attributable to facility-based care which, although more expensive than community-based strategies, improves the likelihood of survival. Most of the running costs are also for facility-based care (US$3·66 billion or 64%), even without the cost of new hospitals and country-specific capital inputs being factored in. The maximum effect on neonatal deaths is through interventions delivered during labour and birth, including for obstetric complications (41%), followed by care of small and ill newborn babies (30%). To meet the unmet need for family planning with modern contraceptives would be synergistic, and would contribute to around a halving of births and therefore deaths. Our analysis also indicates that available interventions can reduce the three most common cause of neonatal mortality--preterm, intrapartum, and infection-related deaths--by 58%, 79%, and 84%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health: from slogan to service delivery.

              The continuum of care has become a rallying call to reduce the yearly toll of half a million maternal deaths, 4 million neonatal deaths, and 6 million child deaths. The continuum for maternal, newborn, and child health usually refers to continuity of individual care. Continuity of care is necessary throughout the lifecycle (adolescence, pregnancy, childbirth, the postnatal period, and childhood) and also between places of caregiving (including households and communities, outpatient and outreach services, and clinical-care settings). We define a population-level or public-health framework based on integrated service delivery throughout the lifecycle, and propose eight packages to promote health for mothers, babies, and children. These packages can be used to deliver more than 190 separate interventions, which would be difficult to scale up one by one. The packages encompass three which are delivered through clinical care (reproductive health, obstetric care, and care of sick newborn babies and children); four through outpatient and outreach services (reproductive health, antenatal care, postnatal care and child health services); and one through integrated family and community care throughout the lifecycle. Mothers and babies are at high risk in the first days after birth, and the lack of a defined postnatal care package is an important gap, which also contributes to discontinuity between maternal and child health programmes. Similarly, because the family and community package tends not to be regarded as part of the health system, few countries have made systematic efforts to scale it up or integrate it with other levels of care. Building the continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health with these packages will need effectiveness trials in various settings; policy support for integration; investment to strengthen health systems; and results-based operational management, especially at district level.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                20 October 2020
                : 10
                : 10
                : e039617
                [1 ]departmentDepartment of Public Health, Institute of Health Sciences , Wollega University , Nekemte, Ethiopia
                [2 ]departmentSchool of Public Health, Faculty of Health , University of Technology Sydney , Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Firew Tekle Bobo; free11messi@ 123456gmail.com
                Author information
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:  http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                : 22 April 2020
                : 19 August 2020
                : 24 August 2020
                Health Economics
                Original research
                Custom metadata

                paediatric infectious disease & immunisation,health economics,public health,community child health


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