To date, there are no vasopressin (VP) agonists that exhibit a high affinity and selectivity for the VP V1b receptor with respect to the V1a, V2, and oxytocin receptors. In this study, we describe the synthesis and pharmacological properties of [1-deamino-4-cyclohexylalanine] arginine vasopressin (d[Cha4]AVP). Binding experiments performed on various membrane preparations revealed that d[Cha(4)]AVP exhibits a nanomolar affinity for V1b receptors from various mammalian species (rat, bovine, human). It exhibits high V1b/V1a and V1b/oxytocin selectivity for rat, human, and bovine receptors. Furthermore, it exhibits high V1b/V2 specificity for both bovine and human vasopressin receptors. Functional studies performed on biological models that naturally express V1b receptors indicate that d[Cha4]AVP is an agonist. Like VP, it stimulated basal and corticotropin-releasing factor-stimulated ACTH secretion and basal catecholamine release from rat anterior pituitary and bovine chromaffin cells, respectively. In vivo experiments performed in rat revealed that d[Cha4]AVP was able to stimulate both ACTH and corticosterone secretion and exhibits negligible vasopressor activity. It retains about 30% of the antidiuretic activity of VP. This long-sought selective VP V1b receptor ligand with nanomolar affinity will allow a better understanding of V1b-mediated VP physiological effects and is a promising new tool for V1b receptor structure-function studies.