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      Pathomechanisms of Oxidative Stress in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Potential Antioxidant Therapies

      review-article
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      Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal disease whose incidence has risen worldwide in recent years. Accumulating evidence shows that oxidative stress plays an essential role in the pathogenesis and progression of IBD. This review highlights the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense mechanisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the involvement of oxidative stress signaling in the initiation and progression of IBD and its relationships with genetic susceptibility and the mucosal immune response. In addition, potential therapeutic strategies for IBD that target oxidative stress signaling are reviewed and discussed. Though substantial progress has been made in understanding the role of oxidative stress in IBD in humans and experimental animals, the underlying mechanisms are still not well defined. Thus, further studies are needed to validate how oxidative stress signaling is involved in and contributes to the development of IBD.

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          Most cited references212

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          Ulcerative colitis practice guidelines in adults: American College Of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee.

          Guidelines for clinical practice are aimed to indicate preferred approaches to medical problems as established by scientifically valid research. Double-blind placebo controlled studies are preferable, but compassionate-use reports and expert review articles are used in a thorough review of the literature conducted through Medline with the National Library of Medicine. When only data that will not withstand objective scrutiny are available, a recommendation is identified as a consensus of experts. Guidelines are applicable to all physicians who address the subject regardless of specialty training or interests and are aimed to indicate the preferable but not necessarily the only acceptable approach to a specific problem. Guidelines are intended to be flexible and must be distinguished from standards of care, which are inflexible and rarely violated. Given the wide range of specifics in any health-care problem, the physician must always choose the course best suited to the individual patient and the variables in existence at the moment of decision. Guidelines are developed under the auspices of the American College of Gastroenterology and its Practice Parameters Committee and approved by the board of trustees. Each has been intensely reviewed and revised by the Committee, other experts in the field, physicians who will use them, and specialists in the science of decision analysis. The recommendations of each guideline are therefore considered valid at the time of composition based on the data available. New developments in medical research and practice pertinent to each guideline will be reviewed at a time established and indicated at publication to assure continued validity. The recommendations made are based on the level of evidence found. Grade A recommendations imply that there is consistent level 1 evidence (randomized controlled trials), grade B indicates that the evidence would be level 2 or 3, which are cohort studies or case-control studies. Grade C recommendations are based on level 4 studies, meaning case series or poor-quality cohort studies, and grade D recommendations are based on level 5 evidence, meaning expert opinion.
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            ROS, mitochondria and the regulation of autophagy.

            Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an oxidative stress to which cells respond by activating various defense mechanisms or, finally, by dying. At low levels, however, ROS act as signaling molecules in various intracellular processes. Autophagy, a process by which eukaryotic cells degrade and recycle macromolecules and organelles, has an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. Here, we review recent reports suggesting a regulatory role for ROS of mitochondrial origin as signaling molecules in autophagy, leading, under different circumstances, to either survival or cell death. We then discuss the relationship between mitochondria and autophagosomes and propose that mitochondria have an essential role in autophagosome biogenesis.
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              Incidence and phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease based on results from the Asia-pacific Crohn's and colitis epidemiology study.

              Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are becoming more common in Asia, but epidemiologic data are lacking. The Asia-Pacific Crohn's and Colitis Epidemiology Study aimed to determine the incidence and phenotype of IBD in 8 countries across Asia and in Australia. We performed a prospective, population-based study of IBD incidence in predefined catchment areas, collecting data for 1 year, starting on April 1, 2011. New cases were ascertained from multiple overlapping sources and entered into a Web-based database. Cases were confirmed using standard criteria. Local endoscopy, pathology, and pharmacy records were searched to ensure completeness of case capture. We identified 419 new cases of IBD (232 of ulcerative colitis [UC], 166 of Crohn's disease [CD], and 21 IBD-undetermined). The crude annual overall incidence values per 100,000 individuals were 1.37 for IBD in Asia (95% confidence interval: 1.25-1.51; 0.76 for UC, 0.54 for CD, and 0.07 for IBD-undetermined) and 23.67 in Australia (95% confidence interval: 18.46-29.85; 7.33 for UC, 14.00 for CD, and 2.33 for IBD-undetermined). China had the highest incidence of IBD in Asia (3.44 per 100,000 individuals). The ratios of UC to CD were 2.0 in Asia and 0.5 in Australia. Median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 5.5 months (interquartile range, 1.4-15 months). Complicated CD (stricturing, penetrating, or perianal disease) was more common in Asia than Australia (52% vs 24%; P = .001), and a family history of IBD was less common in Asia (3% vs 17%; P < .001). We performed a large-scale population-based study and found that although the incidence of IBD varies throughout Asia, it is still lower than in the West. IBD can be as severe or more severe in Asia than in the West. The emergence of IBD in Asia will result in the need for specific health care resources, and offers a unique opportunity to study etiologic factors in developing nations. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                OMCL
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                Hindawi
                1942-0900
                1942-0994
                2017
                28 June 2017
                : 2017
                Affiliations
                College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Javier Egea

                Article
                10.1155/2017/4535194
                5506473
                28744337
                e105080a-2903-491f-a8fc-b52c9ab64eee
                Copyright © 2017 Tian Tian et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81541051
                Award ID: 31301022
                Funded by: Fundamental Research Fund for the Central Universities
                Award ID: 2015JBM095
                Award ID: 2015JBM094
                Categories
                Review Article

                Molecular medicine
                Molecular medicine

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