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      In Situ Probing Multiple‐Scale Structures of Energy Materials for Li‐Ion Batteries

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          Toward Safe Lithium Metal Anode in Rechargeable Batteries: A Review.

          The lithium metal battery is strongly considered to be one of the most promising candidates for high-energy-density energy storage devices in our modern and technology-based society. However, uncontrollable lithium dendrite growth induces poor cycling efficiency and severe safety concerns, dragging lithium metal batteries out of practical applications. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the lithium metal anode and its dendritic lithium growth. First, the working principles and technical challenges of a lithium metal anode are underscored. Specific attention is paid to the mechanistic understandings and quantitative models for solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation, lithium dendrite nucleation, and growth. On the basis of previous theoretical understanding and analysis, recently proposed strategies to suppress dendrite growth of lithium metal anode and some other metal anodes are reviewed. A section dedicated to the potential of full-cell lithium metal batteries for practical applications is included. A general conclusion and a perspective on the current limitations and recommended future research directions of lithium metal batteries are presented. The review concludes with an attempt at summarizing the theoretical and experimental achievements in lithium metal anodes and endeavors to realize the practical applications of lithium metal batteries.
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            Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage.

            Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed.
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              Advanced materials for energy storage.

              Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Small Methods
                Small Methods
                Wiley
                2366-9608
                2366-9608
                June 2020
                May 22 2019
                June 2020
                : 4
                : 6
                : 1900223
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of PhysicsCity University of Hong Kong Hong Kong 999077 P. R. China
                [2 ]Shenzhen Research InstituteCity University of Hong Kong Shenzhen 518057 P. R. China
                [3 ]Herbert Gleiter Institute of NanoscienceNanjing University of Science and Technology Nanjing 210094 P. R. China
                [4 ]State Key Laboratory of Silicon MaterialsKey Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, and Department of Materials Science and EngineeringZhejiang University Hangzhou 310027 P. R. China
                Article
                10.1002/smtd.201900223
                e105e524-b7de-4e8b-b838-18e4f0529ef3
                © 2020

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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