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      Aging Adversely Affects Postinfarction Inflammatory Response and Early Left Ventricular Remodeling after Reperfused Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction

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          Abstract

          Background and Aims: We have demonstrated that an increased peak serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was a major predictor of left ventricular (LV) remodeling. We sought to clarify the effect of aging on the postinfarction inflammatory response and LV remodeling. Methods: We studied 102 patients who underwent primary angioplasty for a first anterior Q-wave AMI. Serum CRP levels, plasma neurohormones and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and LV volume by left ventriculography were serially measured. Patients were divided into two groups according to their age (≧70 years, n = 33; <70 years, n = 69). Results: There was no difference in use of cardiovascular drugs and coronary angiographic findings. Older patients had a greater increase in LV end-diastolic volume during 2 weeks after AMI (p = 0.0007) and a higher peak CRP level (12.4 ± 7.3 vs. 5.5 ± 4.2 mg/dl, p < 0.0001), although peak CK level was comparable between the two groups. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide and IL-6 levels were higher in older patients at 2 weeks and 6 months after AMI. Conclusions: Augmented and prolonged activation of the inflammatory system after AMI was observed in older patients, in association with exaggerated LV remodeling. Aging may adversely affect LV remodeling through modification of the inflammatory response after AMI.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Negative inotropic effects of cytokines on the heart mediated by nitric oxide.

          The direct effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the contractility of mammalian heart were studied. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-2 inhibited contractility of isolated hamster papillary muscles in a concentration-dependent, reversible manner. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) blocked these negative inotropic effects. L-Arginine reversed the inhibition by L-NMMA. Removal of the endocardial endothelium did not alter these responses. These findings demonstrate that the direct negative inotropic effect of cytokines is mediated through a myocardial nitric oxide synthase. The regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and myocardial nitric oxide synthase may provide new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cardiac disease.
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            Plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration: impact of age and gender.

            We wished to examine the effects of age and gender on plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration in a population-based study. Measurement of BNP concentration is approved for use in the diagnosis of heart failure and may aid in the detection of left ventricular dysfunction. Although BNP is approved for clinical use, there are few data regarding the range of BNP observed in persons without cardiovascular disease or cardiac dysfunction. These data are essential for the interpretation of BNP. In 2,042 randomly selected residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, >44 years old, BNP (Shionogi and Biosite assays), Doppler echocardiography, and medical record review were performed. A normal subset of subjects (n = 767) in sinus rhythm without cardiovascular, renal, or pulmonary disease or diabetes; on no cardiovascular medications; and with normal systolic, diastolic, and valvular function was identified. Within the normal subset, the distribution of BNP differed by age, gender, and assay system. With both assays, BNP increased significantly with age and was significantly higher in women than men, leading to age-, gender-, and assay-specific reference ranges. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for the ability of BNP to detect an ejection fraction < or = 40% was performed in each age/gender stratum in the entire cohort (n = 2,042) and confirmed that discriminatory values for BNP for detection of reduced ejection fraction were higher in women and older persons and were different between the two assays. Interpretation of BNP should include consideration of age-, gender-, and assay-specific partition values.
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              Treatment of myocardial infarction in a coronary care unit

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2006
                February 2006
                10 February 2006
                : 105
                : 2
                : 67-74
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, bNational Hospital Organization, Saitama National Hospital, and cSaitama Municipal Hospital, Saitama, Japan
                Article
                89542 Cardiology 2006;105:67–74
                10.1159/000089542
                16286731
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 32, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Research

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